Japanese JLPT N2 文法 4 Flashcards Preview

Japanese JLPT N2 文法 > Japanese JLPT N2 文法 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Japanese JLPT N2 文法 4 Deck (24):


"Not only"
- like using し at the end of the first clause

Usage: V/A/na/N 上に

ex) 彼は仕事ができる上に優しい。
"Not only is he good at his job, but he is also a nice guy."



"after doing....."
- used when the action to be completed has a prerequisite.

Usage: Vた・Nの 上で

ex) よく考えた上で決めます。
"after I think well about it, I will decide"



"as a result of..." "since...."
the first clause is followed by words that give advice or express determination.

Usage: V上は

ex) キャプテンに選ばれた上は、頑張るしかない。
"since I was chosen as captain, I must try my hardest"



"according to...."

Usage: Nの上では

ex) 天気図の上では春なのに、実際はまだ寒い。
"according to the patterns on the weather map it indicates it is spring, but actually it is still cold"



- when describing the intended target, or for who/what something is normally associated

Usage: N向けだ

Also → 「N向けに」「N向けのN」

ex) それは、初心者向けの教科書です。
"this is a textbook for beginners"



"due to..."

Usage: N次第で

ex) 花火大会は天気次第で中止になる場合もあります。
"the fireworks display may be cancelled due to the weather."



"as soon as (something happens), I will...."

Usage: V次第 ← ますDrop

ex) 決まり次第、ご連絡いたします。
"As soon as it is decided, I will contact you"



"the reason for...."
- same as 「~わけです」("that is why....")

Usage: Vる・た・ている 次第です

ex) このたび担当が替わりましたので、あいさつに伺った次第です。
"I am here to greet you because I'm the new person in charge"



"in response to"

Usage: Nに答えて

Also → 「Nに答え」「Nに答えるN」



"in contrast to..."
- used when there is a contrast; focus is on the preceding statement.

Usage: N・文の・これ に対して

Also → 「Nに対するN」



"in accordance with...." "by the way of...." "due to"
- to express a method, basis, cause, case

Usage: Nにより

Also → 「NによるN」



"involved in" "regarding"
- similar to 「関する」

Usage: Nにかかわって

ex) 彼は汚職事件にかかわって逮捕された。
"he was arrested for being involved in a corruption case.



"while..." "although..."

Usage: N/na/Aい/V ながら

ex) 悪いことと知りながら、盗みを繰り返した。
"while I knew it was bad, I continued to steal"



"while..." "although"
- the same as「ながら」but more formal

Usage: VつつV ← ますDrop



When something is continually/gradually proceeding.
- similar feeling to 「どんどん」

Usage: Vつつある ← ますDrop



Describes a persons position/rank with regard to the current conversation; a feeling of blame or criticism.
- similar to saying "you are simply...(you don't know anything)"

Usage: V/A/na/N くせして

ex) 知らないくせして、知っているようなことを言うな!
Don't talk as if you know!


~べきだ / ~べきではない

"should" / "should not"
- generally used by people of higher status, or to self.

Usage: Vる・す べきだ
Usage: Vる・す べきではない

ex) もっと勉強するべきだった
"I should have studied more"



- to have to do something. Sometimes can have the meaning of "have no choice but to"

Usage: Vざるをえない
Note: しない→せざるをえない

ex) いやな仕事でも、生活のためには続けざるをえない。



"will be"
- used when there was a decision made about something that is taking place in the future

Usage: Vる・ない・Nという ことになっている

ex) 60点以上が合格ということになっている。
"A passing grade will be 60 points or more."



"only" (as in "simply"; "just a simple...")
- formal

Usage: V/A/na/N にすぎない

ex) 単なる言う間違いにすぎない。
"It was only a simple slip of the tongue"



"when (doing something)"
- same as 「~するときに」but formal

Usage: N・Vるにあたり

Also → 「~にあたって」

ex) 図書館の利用にあたり、図書カードが必要です。
"A library card is required when you use the library"



"according to..." "based on"

Usage: Nに沿って

ex) お客様ひとりひとりのご希望に沿った旅行プランをお作りします。
"We make travel plans according to each customer's wishes"



"prior to..."
- same as 「~する前に」but formal

Usage: N・Vる に先立ち



"over large parts of" "across"
- used when to describe that something covers a large area

Usage: Nにわたって

ex) この台風の影響で、関東地方は広い範囲にわたって大雨となるでしょう。
Because of this typhoon, it is expected to rain heavily across large parts of the Kanto region.