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is the process of determining the work activities and requirements, and the job description is the written result of the job analysis



It is a detailed description of job tasks, procedures, and responsibilities; the tools and equipment used; and the end product or service.

Writing Job Description


It is only possible to select employees if there is a clear understanding of the tasks performed and the competencies needed to perform those tasks. By knowing the requirements, it is possible to choose tests and develop interview questions that will determine the needed KSAos in a particular job.

Employee Selection


10 Products of Job Analysis

Employee Selection
Writing Job Description
Personpower Planning
Performance Appraisal
Job Classification
Job Evaluation
Job Design
Job Specification
Compliance with Legal Guidelines


It is difficult to see how employees can be trained unless the requirements of the job are known. Job analyses yield lists of job activities that can be systematically used to create training programs.



Personpower Planning
Seldom employed use of job analysis is to determine worker mobility within an organization. Many organizations have a policy of promoting the person who performs the best in the job. Although it has an advantages, there’s a tendency that it will result to Peter principle- promoting employees until they eventually reach their highest level of incompetence. Ex. Promoting an employee based on sales alone.

Personpower Planning


promoting employees until they eventually reach their highest level of incompetence. Ex. Promoting an employee based on sales alone.

Peter principle-Job Classification


It is use for construction of a performance appraisal instrument. As in employee selection, the evaluation of employee performance must be job related.

Performance Appraisal


Job analysis enables a human resources professional to classify jobs into groups based on similarities in requirements and duties. Job classification is useful for determining pay levels, transfers, and promotions.

Job Classification


Job analysis information can also be used to determine the worth of a job. Job evaluation is an assessment of the relative value of a job to determine appropriate compensation.

Job Evaluation


Job analysis information can be used to determine the optimal way in which a job should be performed.

Job Design


One legally acceptable way to directly determine job relatedness is by job analysis.

Compliance with Legal Guidelines


Job analysts often become aware of certain problems within an organization. For example, during a job analysis interview, an employee may indicate that she does not know how she is evaluated or to whom she is supposed to report. The discovery of such lapses in organizational communication can then be used to correct problems and help an organization function better.

Organizational Analysis


Sections in writing job description

Job Title
Brief Summary
Work Activities
Tools and Equipment Used
Job Context
Work Performance
Compensation Information
Job Competencies


>Describes the nature of the job.
>Provide workers with some form of identity.
> can also affect perceptions of the status and worth of a job.

Job Title


need be only a paragraph in length but should briefly describe the nature and purpose of the job. This summary can be used in help-wanted advertisements, internal job postings, and company brochures.

Brief Summary


__ section lists the tasks and activities in which the worker is involved. These tasks and activities should be organized into meaningful categories to make the job description easy to read and understand. The category labels are also convenient to use in the brief summary.

Work Activities


Even though tools and equipment may have been mentioned in the activities section, placing them in a separate section makes their identification simpler. Information in this section is used primarily for employee selection and training.

Tools and Equipment Used


This section should describe the environment in which the employee works and should mention stress level, work schedule, physical demands, level of responsibility, temperature, number of coworkers, degree of danger, and any other relevant information.

Job Context


The job description should outline standards of performance. This section contains a relatively brief description of how an employee’s performance is evaluated and what work standards are expected of the employee.

Work Performance


This section of the job description should contain information on the salary grade, whether the position is exempt, and the compensable factors used to determine salary.

Compensation Information


This section contains what are commonly called job specifications or competencies. These are the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) (such as interest, personality, and training) that are necessary to be successful on the job.

Job Competencies


How Often Should a Job Description Be Updated?

If the job changes significantly.
Job Crafting


the informal changes that employees make in their jobs.

Job Crafting


Conducting Job Analysis

1. Identify tasks performed
2. Write task statements
3. Rate task statements.
4. Determine essential KSAOs.
5. Selecting tests to tap KSAOs.


. A __ is a body of information needed to perform a task.



A __ is the proficiency to perform a learned task.



An__ is a basic capacity for performing a wide range of different tasks, acquiring a knowledge, or developing a skill.



__ include such personal factors as personality, willingness, interest, and motivation and such tangible factors as licenses, degrees, and years of experience.

other characteristics


4 Specific Job Analysis Techniques

Job Element Method
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Job Structure Profile (JSP)
Job Elements Inventory


A job analysis method that analyzes jobs in terms of the KSAOs required to perform the jobs. In this method, the analyst relies on SEMs. This method is “person-oriented” in that it focuses on the characteristics of the individual who is performing the job

Job Element Method


It is a structured instrument developed at Purdue University by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972). It is a job analysis technique that uses a structured questionnaire to analyze job according to 187 job statements, grouped into 6 categories.

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)


-A revised version of the PAQ was developed by Patrick and Moore (1985)

Job Structure Profile (JSP)


An alternative to the PAQ is the Job Elements Inventory (JEI), developed by Cornelius and Hakel (1987).

Job Elements Inventory


or known as “ergonomic job analysis procedure”
Provides information about the activities that are performed and the equipment used to perform them.

AET (Arbeitswissenschaftliches Erhebungsverfahren zur Tatigkeitsanalyse)


it is a national job analysis system created by the federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) which had been in use since the 1930s.

Occupational Information Network (O*NET)


It was developed and first used by John Flanagan and his students at the University of Pittsburgh in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
- is used to discover actual incidents of job behavior that make the difference between a job’s successful or unsuccessful performance.

Critical Incident Technique (CIT)


This method is available only by hiring a particular consulting firm. The 33 items cover five trait categories: physical, mental, learned, motivational, and social. Because the TTA also focuses on traits, its main uses are in the development of an employee selection system or a career plan.

Threshold Trait Analysis


It requires incumbents or job analysts to view a series of abilities and to rate the level of ability needed to perform the job. These ratings are performed for each of the 72 abilities and knowledge. The F-JAS is easy to use by incumbents or trained analysts, and is supported by years of research.

Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS)


It is a 132-item inventory developed by Pulakos, Arad, Donovan, and Plamondon (2000) that taps the extent to which a job incumbent needs to adapt to situations on the job.

Job Adaptability Inventory


It was developed by Raymark, Schmit, and Guion (1997) to identify the personality types needed to perform job-related tasks. The __ consists of 107 items tapping 12 personality dimensions that fall under the “Big 5” personality dimensions (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability).

Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF)


It is the process of assessing the relative value of jobs to determine appropriate compensation. A job evaluation is typically done in two stages: determining internal pay equity and determining external pay equity.

Job Evaluation


involves comparing jobs within an organization to ensure that the people in jobs worth the most money are paid accordingly. The difficulty in this process, of course, is determining the worth of each job.

Internal pay equity


, the worth of a job is determined by comparing the job to the external market (other organizations). External equity is important if an organization is to attract and retain employees. In other words, it must be competitive with the compensation plans of other organizations

external equity


It is the notion that jobs that require equivalent KSAOs should be compensated equally.

Comparable Worth