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Flashcards in Johns- HIV Deck (28)
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1

What is the first step in viral replication and where is the is the of attachment?

HIV attaches to susceptible host cell
Attaches to CD4 antigen found on:
CD4 T cells
macrophages
moncytes
B cells
microglial brain cells
intestinal cells

2

When is viral replication triggered? What may be destroyed in the process?

After period of latency, can last up to 10 years.

Replication occurs at a HIGH rate.

CD4 cells.

3

What causes symptoms of HIV to appear?

destruction of large number of CD4 cells

4

What are the methods of transmission of HIV?

sexual
exposure to infected blood
contaminated clotting factors
sharing needles
transplant
mother to fetus

5

What is primary HIV syndrome?

MONO like, cold or flu-like sxs
can occur 6-12 wks after infection

lymphadenoapathy
fever
rash
HA
fatigue
diarrhea
sore throat
neulogic

or no sxs present

6

When does the HIV Ab test become positive?

Usually 3-6 months after infection (seroconversion)

7

How do you diagnose primary HIV?

viral load titer assay or other test

8

What is the clinical latency period in HIV?

HIV continues to reproduce
CD4 gradually declines from its normal value of 500-1200

9

When is a pt w/ HIV at risk for opportunistic infections?

once cd4 count drops below 500

10

What diseases are predictive of progression to AIDS?

herpes zoster
oral candidiasis
oral hairy lekuoplakia
kaposi's sarcoma

11

When does a pt have AIDs?

When CD4 ct drops below 200

12

What are AIDS pts at risk for if their blood count is below 200?

PCP (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)
crptococcal meningitis
toxoplasmosis

13

What are AIDS pts at risk for if their CD4 count drops below 50?

myobacterium avium
CMV
lymphoma
dementia

14

When do most deaths occur?

CD4 counts below 50

15

What are the immunological manifestations of HIV?

Slight depression of CD4, few sxs
Ab detected by 6 months
P24 presents in first 6 weeks along with acute viremia and antigenemia
Abs produced to all major antigens

16

The first antibodies detected are produced against what proteins? Followed by?

gag proteins
p24
p55

Antibody to
p51
p120
gp41

17

What happens as the disease progresses

Ab levels decrease

18

What does ELISA testing do?

screen for HIV

19

What does a western blot do?

confirms HIV

20

What does the CDC require for a positive HIV test?

2 bands of the folllowing:
p24
gp41
gp 120/160

21

What are viral load tests used for?

tells you the quantity of HIV-RNA in the blood

Used to monitor treatment

22

What is the prognosis for HIV?

84% are alive in 10 yrs

23

what are the CDC's HIV screening guidelines?

routine HIV testing to all persons 13-64 at least one regardless of risk w / repeat testing for person w/ risk factors

24

What is pneumocystis jiroveci?

The most common opportunitistic infection in HIV

yeast like fungus
usually found in healthy lungs but causes sxs in person w/ weak IS

25

What are the classic sxs associated w/ pt w/ pneumocystis jiroveci?

shortness of breath
dry cough
fever

26

The screening test for HIV is...

ELISA

27

What test is used to follow HIV pts?

CD4 count

28

What is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV pts?

Pneumocystis