Flashcards in Johns- HIV Deck (28)
What is the first step in viral replication and where is the is the of attachment?
HIV attaches to susceptible host cell
Attaches to CD4 antigen found on:
CD4 T cells
microglial brain cells
When is viral replication triggered? What may be destroyed in the process?
After period of latency, can last up to 10 years.
Replication occurs at a HIGH rate.
What causes symptoms of HIV to appear?
destruction of large number of CD4 cells
What are the methods of transmission of HIV?
exposure to infected blood
contaminated clotting factors
mother to fetus
What is primary HIV syndrome?
MONO like, cold or flu-like sxs
can occur 6-12 wks after infection
or no sxs present
When does the HIV Ab test become positive?
Usually 3-6 months after infection (seroconversion)
How do you diagnose primary HIV?
viral load titer assay or other test
What is the clinical latency period in HIV?
HIV continues to reproduce
CD4 gradually declines from its normal value of 500-1200
When is a pt w/ HIV at risk for opportunistic infections?
once cd4 count drops below 500
What diseases are predictive of progression to AIDS?
oral hairy lekuoplakia
When does a pt have AIDs?
When CD4 ct drops below 200
What are AIDS pts at risk for if their blood count is below 200?
PCP (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)
What are AIDS pts at risk for if their CD4 count drops below 50?
When do most deaths occur?
CD4 counts below 50
What are the immunological manifestations of HIV?
Slight depression of CD4, few sxs
Ab detected by 6 months
P24 presents in first 6 weeks along with acute viremia and antigenemia
Abs produced to all major antigens
The first antibodies detected are produced against what proteins? Followed by?
What happens as the disease progresses
Ab levels decrease
What does ELISA testing do?
screen for HIV
What does a western blot do?
What does the CDC require for a positive HIV test?
2 bands of the folllowing:
What are viral load tests used for?
tells you the quantity of HIV-RNA in the blood
Used to monitor treatment
What is the prognosis for HIV?
84% are alive in 10 yrs
what are the CDC's HIV screening guidelines?
routine HIV testing to all persons 13-64 at least one regardless of risk w / repeat testing for person w/ risk factors
What is pneumocystis jiroveci?
The most common opportunitistic infection in HIV
yeast like fungus
usually found in healthy lungs but causes sxs in person w/ weak IS
What are the classic sxs associated w/ pt w/ pneumocystis jiroveci?
shortness of breath
The screening test for HIV is...
What test is used to follow HIV pts?