Flashcards in Joints of the Upper Limb Deck (48):
What is the only bony attachment of the upper limb to the axial skeleton?
What kind of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?
synovial, saddle - allows circumduction to take place
What are the articulating elements of the sternoclavicular joint?
manubrium, costal cartilage of the 1st rib, sternal end of the clavicle
What ligament runs across the jugular notch and attaches to both clavicles on either side?
What are the four main ligaments associated with the sternoclavicular joint? Where are they?
anterior sternoclavicular ligament - anterior surface around the articualr capsule from clavical to manubrium
posterior sternoclavicular ligament -posterior surface similar to twin
interclavicular ligament - continuous across jugular notch
costoclavicular ligament - strongest, between costal cartilage of first rib to medial inferior portion of the clavical
What is the purpose of all the sternoclavicular ligaments?
to prevent elevation of the medial end of the clavicle
What divides the sternoclavicular joint into two separate joint cavities?
fibrocartilaginous articular disk
What is the main function of the fibrocartilaginous articular disk?
cushion joint and help prevent upward and medial dislocation; increase overall joint motion
What nerve supply the sternoclavicular going?
median supraclavicular nerves (C3, C4)
nerve to subclavius (C5, C6)
What arterial branches supply the sternoclavicular joint
internal thoracic a.,
highest thoracic a.,
clavicular branch of thoracoacromial a. (axillary)
What type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint?
synovial, plane (gliding) - allows frictionless sliding motion in one plane
what are the articulating elements of the acromioclavicular joint?
acromion process of scapula, lateral end of the clavicle
Describe the shape of the fibrocartilaginous disk of hte acromioclavicular joint.
incomplete, wedge shaped attached superiorly the articular capsule and projects into the joint cavity, partially dividing it into two areas
What are the 3 ligaments associated with the acromioclavicular joint?
superior acromioclavicular ligament - attach superiorly from the acromion process of the scapula to the clavicle (around articular capsule)
posterior acromioclavicular ligament - same as twin, just opposite side
coracoclavicular ligament - anchor the clavicle to coracoid process of scapula
Which is the strongest of the acromioclavicular joint ligaments?
what are the two parts of the coracoclavicular ligament?
conoid part - more medial, attaches superiorly to the conoid tubercle of hte clavicle
trapezoid part - more lateral; attach superiorly to the trapezoid line of the clavicle
where is the acromioclavicular joint the strongest?
where tendinous fibers of the trapezius attach superiorly to the distal clavicle and acromion
What arterial branches supply the acromioclavicular joint?
thoracoacromial and lateral thoracic arteries
What nerves innervate the acromioclavicular joint?
lateral pectoral n
What type of joint is the glenohumeral joint?
synovial ball and socket
what are the articulating elements of the glenohumeral joint?
glenoid cavity of the scapula and head of the humerus
what are the 3 ligaments associated with the glenohumeral joint?
coracohumeral ligament - from coracoid process to greater tubercle of humerus
coracoacromial ligament - spans scapular prominences (froms roof)
transverse humeral ligament - anteriorly spans the intertubercular groove to precisely locate the tendon of the long head of the biceps
what is unique about the articular capsule of the glenohumeral joint?
thin and loose to contribute to joint flexibility in all ranges of motion
what is the fibrocartilaginous elevation surrounding the glenoid cavity which assists in increasing socket depth?
Where does the tendon of the long biceps head run?
through the intertuburcular groove to transverse the interior of the joint where it attaches superiorly to the glenoid labrum.
Where do the glenohumeral bands or ligaments attach?
seen on internal aspect of the anterior wall of the joint capsule attaching above to the anterior glenoid margin and below to the lesser tubercle and anatomical neck of the humerus.
What prevents anterior and posterior inferior dislocation?
glenohumeral bands (3 superior, middle and inferior)
what arteries supply the glenohumeral joint?
- anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
- suprascapular artery
What nerves innervate the glenohumeral joint?
suprascapular n., axillary n., lateral pectoral n.
What two joints does the elbow contain?
elbow joint - synovial, hinge
proximal radioulnar joint - synovial pivot
What is special about the elbow joint and the proximal radioulnar joint?
share a common synovial cavity
Where is the articular capsule of the elbow weak?
anteriorly and posteriorly in range of motion
- reinforced by collateral ligaments
what are the three parts of the ulnar collateral ligament?
anterior part - (strongest) medial epicondyle of humerus to tubercle on coronoid process of ulna
posterior part - (weaker) medial epicondyle of humerus to medial edge of olecranon process of ulna
oblique transverse part - (weakest) lateral epicondyle to annular ligament of radius
what ligament looks like a ring and attaches the head of the radius to the ulna?
What pivot joints are present in the upper limb?
proximal radioulnar joint
distal radio-ulnar joint
What joints contain a fibrocartilagionous articular disk?
distal radio-ulnar joint
what is important about the interosseous membrane that spans between the radius and the ulna?
the angle of the fibers are positioned in such a way so that it resists the tendency of these two bones to be force in opposite direction and directs pressure when force is applied to the hand from the radius (at wrist) to ulna (at elbow)
What kind of joint is the wrist joint?
(radio-carpal) ellipsoidal or condyloid - allows flexion/extension, abd/add
What carpal bones articulate with the radius and articular disk of distal radioulnar joint?
scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrium
what are the ligaments of the wrist joint?
palmar and dorsal radiocarpal ligament
radial and ulnar collateral ligament
what kind of joints are present between carpal bones?
synovial plane (bone are all in the same joint cavity - slide over one another)
what allows for increased flexibility of wrist during flexion, extension, and opposition?
lack of interosseous ligaments between the proximal and distal row of carpals forming the mid-carpal joint
what type of joint is the carpometacarpal and intermetacarpal joints?
synovial, plane (gliding) - distal row of carpals to metacarpals
what is unique about the thumb?
it is a saddle joint at base and capsule is loos to allow freedom of movement
what ligament keeps the metacarpals in line?
deep transverse metacarpal ligament
what type of joint is present between the metacarpals and phalangies?
what strengthens the metacarpophalangeal joints?
passage of the tendons of the extensor digitorum (digits 2-5) and extensor pollicis longus and brevis (thumb)