Julian of Norwich Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Julian of Norwich Deck (32):
1

Norwich: born

1342

2

Norwich: dies

1420's?

3

Norwich: nature

fairly brutal—squalor and disease and the elements trying to intrude on the home; these punishments can also bring us close to God

4

Norwich: ideology

The change from a warrior God to a more feminine God of suffering; christocentric.

5

Norwich: cosmic relationship

Identifying God (and through him, oneself) in the general rather than the particular; the personal exists to fulfill the macrocosmic or universal, rather than the Romantic, post-Kantian conception that the universal is-for the personal.

6

Norwich: centres, home

Christ as mother; domestic sphere; squalor and disease;

7

Norwich: mysticism

understanding higher truths through revelation, involving an often ecstatic communion with God—so closely tied to the early Christian Eucharist. (Also probably the condescension of Christ; the Trinity.)

8

Norwich: "mysticism" comes from the Greek for

"to conceal"

9

Norwich: "showings" are sensory, especially

visual

10

Norwich: her three desires

1. to suffer Christ's pain on the cross
2. to have a bodily sickness in youth unto death
3. to have "wounds" of contrition, compassion, and longing for God

11

Norwich: art, artifice

Small orb = representation of all of creation; God is over it (in some ways this vision invites her outside the created cosmos with its spheres and to where God is (Cf. the epic trope about the cosmos)

12

Norwich: genre

spiritual autobiography; sermon; visionary writing

13

Norwich: form

fragmentary, incomplete

14

Norwich: style, delivery

Oral delivery--circumlocution rather than the syllogistic style of the university trained theologian or debater.

15

Norwich: most scholars believe short version was composed shortly after the showings of

1373

16

Norwich: the long version was probably composed around

1393

17

Norwich: Nicholas Watson has pointed out that the shorter version may have been written some years after 73. Why

Julian’s repeated insistence on her submission to the Church’s stance about the painting of crucifixes and scenes of Christ’s passion would be more appropriate to the 1380’s or later, when Wyclif’s Lollard followers had gained notoriety and condemnation for criticizing the Church’s use of these images

18

Norwich: warrior God v. Christ-mother

The shift toward a more feminine Christianity—intimacy, personal contact, domesticity, as opposed to the warlike god of early medieval Christianity up through the crusades

19

Norwich: her chronological place in history of female writing

First verifiably female writer in English

20

Norwich: her audience

those of the contemplative lifestyle, or just the devout who could read

21

Norwich: anchorite lifestyle, general

Anchorite lifestyle increasingly common in late middle ages: this was someone who had entered into an enclosed solitary life in a fixed place, in order to achieve greater spiritual perfection (late 12-th century Ancrene Wisse offers guidance for this way of life). Allows for individual forms of devotion. More anchorites and hermits recorded in Norwich than in any other medieval English town.

22

Norwich: like Langland, she devotes her life to

thinking and rethinking her visionary experience

23

Norwich: anchorite lifestyle for women, anchoress

o Offers women some privacy, autonomy, and a chance for intellectual development that would have been unavailable even in a convent. Many lived in cells attached to churches, and Julian lived in such a cell at the St Julian’s church in Norwich (likely where she got her name). Julian appears as an anchorite in The Book of Margery Kempe, where she gives Margery some advice.

24

Norwich: talking point, Jesus as mother

Cf. the hermaphrodite at this time; philosopher's stone; itself a kind of "showing"

25

Norwich: God says to Julian: “I will make all things well; I shall make all things well, I may make all things well, and I can make all things well.” Analyze

There’s not only unlimited potential for God to make things well; His omniscient foresight involves every possible iteration of the future for Julian—including one in which God only “may” or “can” make all things well. In other words, perhaps, the “wellness” is the only guarantee—not that it will come in a way mortals recognize.

26

Norwich: education

gives some insight into the educational possibilities at the time: the anchorite or anchoress was able to achieve the right atmosphere for learning.

27

Norwich: God's connection to his creatures, community as living creatures of God

everyone suffers together

28

Norwich: God wants Julian to mark his words carefully: not that there won’t be torment but

that we can survive it

29

Norwich: God's attitude toward sin

less harsh

30

Norwich: QUID PRO QUIETISM

Literally every part of the written account serves to glorify God and support the Catholic Church in powerful ways, so it can't be censored--nor would the clergy desire to censor something that speaks so well of them. But in return she gets to set a precedent for a woman receiving and communicating revelation directly from God, and one which is weighty on many highly important questions, like God's nature, his attitude toward sin, etc.

31

Norwich: the earliest feminism, women's rights

QUID PRO QUIETISM

32

Norwich: irony

No irony seems intended, and to attribute irony to her would be pure speculation, unsupported by the text; still, whether it is merely circumstantial or simply subconscious, it is still effective)