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Flashcards in Kapitel 1 Deck (20)
1

Organic molecule containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group. Those that serve as building blocks of proteins are alpha amino acids - having both the amino and carboxyl groups linked to the same carbon atom. (NH2CHRCOOH - Panel 3–1 - pp. 112–113)

amino acid

2

Single-celled organism without a nucleus - superficially similar to bacteria. At a molecular level - more closely related to eukaryotes in genetic machinery than are bacteria. Archaea and bacteria together make up the prokaryotes. (Figure 1–17)

archaeon (plural arch[a]ea) (archaebacterium)

3

Member of the domain bacteria - one of the three main branches of the tree of life (archaea - bacteria - and eukaryotes). Bacteria and archaea both lack a distinct nuclear compartment - and together comprise the prokaryotes. (Figure 1–17)

bacterium (plural bacteria) (eubacterium)

4

Process by which a copy of a DNA molecule is made.

DNA replication

5

Protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction.

enzyme

6

Organism composed of one or more cells that have a distinct nucleus. Member of one of the three main divisions of the living world - the other two being bacteria and archaea. (Figure 1–17)

eukaryote

7

Region of DNA that is transcribed as a single unit and carries information for a discrete hereditary characteristic - usually corresponding to (1) a single protein (or set of related proteins generated by variant post-transcriptional processing) - or (2) a single RNA (or set of closely related RNAs).

gene

8

The set of genes in an organism related in DNA sequence due to their derivation from the same ancestor.

gene family

9

One of two or more genes that are similar in sequence as a result of derivation from the same ancestral gene. The term covers both orthologs and paralogs. (Figure 1–21) See homologous chromosomes.

homolog

10

A species that has been studied intensively over a long period and thus serves as a “model” for deriving fundamental biological principles.

model organism

11

Nucleoside with one or more phosphate groups joined in ester linkages to the sugar moiety. DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. (Panel 2–6 - pp. 100–101)

nucleotide

12

Genes or proteins from different species that are similar in sequence because they are descendants of the same gene in the last common ancestor of those species. Compare paralogs. (Figure 1–21)

orthologs

13

Genes or proteins that are similar in sequence because they are the result of a gene duplication event occurring in an ancestral organism. Those in two different organisms are less likely to have the same function than are orthologs. Compare orthologs. (Figure 1–21)

paralogs

14

Linear polymer of amino acids. Proteins are large polypeptides - and the two terms can be used interchangeably. (Panel 3–1 - pp. 112–113)

polypeptide

15

Single-celled microorganism whose cells lack a well-defined - membrane-enclosed nucleus. Either a bacterium or an archaeon. (Figure 1–17)

prokaryote

16

The major macromolecular constituent of cells. A linear polymer of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds in a specific sequence. (Figure 3–1)

protein

17

Polymer formed from covalently linked ribonucleotide monomers. (Figure 6–4)

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

18

Copying of one strand of DNA into a complementary RNA sequence by the enzyme RNA polymerase. (Figure 6–1)

transcription (DNA transcription)

19

Process by which the sequence of nucleotides in an mRNA molecule directs the incorporation of amino acids into protein. Occurs on a ribosome. (Figure 6–64)

translation (RNA translation)

20

Particle consisting of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) enclosed in a protein coat and capable of replicating within a host cell and spreading from cell to cell. (Figure 23–11)

virus