Key Associations Flashcards Preview

Rapid Review STEP 1 > Key Associations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key Associations Deck (135):
2

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing's ulcer (increased ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

4

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

5

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)

6

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

7

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mamillary bodies

Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (HbS)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. Pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in the first two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with Gp1b deficiency

Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)

19

Breast mass

1. Fibrocystic change 2. Carcinoma (in post menopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac primary tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

1. Metastasis 2. Primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium, "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis (Type 1: postmenopausal woman; type 2: elderly man or woman)

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

Tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosus (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/ hypothyroidism

35

Cushing's syndrome

1. Corticosteroid therapy 2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary 3. Small cell lung carcinoma

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

1. Alzheimer's disease 2. Multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple Sclerosis

42

DIC

Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/ pulmonic stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer`

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)

52

Helminth infection (U.S.)

1. Enterobius vermicularis 2. Ascaris lumbricoides

53

Hematoma- epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma- subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

55

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes", and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

56

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand's disease

58

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

59

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis

60

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

61

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)

63

Hypertension, secondary

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathryoidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)

68

Kidney stones

1. Calcium = radiopaque 2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus) 3. Uric acid = radiolucent

69

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L -> R becomes R -> L

Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

70

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

71

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher's disease

72

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

73

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin's lymphoma

74

Malignant skin tumor

Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)

75

Mental retardation

1. Down Syndrome 2. Fragile X syndrome

76

Metastases to bone

Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney

77

Metastases to brain

Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI

78

Metastases to liver

Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

ALS

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Neoplasm (kids)

1. ALL 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma

84

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

85

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)

86

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome

87

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

88

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

89

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

90

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia

91

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

92

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

93

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

94

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

95

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystademona

96

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

97

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

98

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

99

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult about 60, CML: adult 30-60

100

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)

101

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

102

Pituitary tumor

1. Prolactinoma 2. Somatotropic "acidophile" adenoma

103

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45XO)

104

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

105

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

106

Primary hyperparathyroidism

1. Adenomas 2. Hyperplasia 3. Carcinoma

107

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin)

108

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

109

Recurrent inflammation/ thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

110

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

111

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

112

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

Increased ventricular filling (L-> R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

113

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

114

Secondary hyperparathyoidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

115

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

116

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

117

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

118

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid

119

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

120

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

121

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

122

t(8;14)

Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)

123

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

124

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

125

Testicular tumor

Seminoma

126

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

127

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

128

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

129

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

130

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

131

Type of Hodgkin's

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

132

Type of non-Hodgkin's

Diffuse large cell

133

UTI

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (sexually active young women)

134

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

135

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)

Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)

136

Most common brain tumor of childhood?

Pilocytic astrocytoma -- usually in cerebellum, Rosenthal fibers on histo, better prognosis than medulloblastoma...