Renal/Repro/Resp Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal/Repro/Resp Deck (38):
1

Mannitol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Osmotic diuretic; used to treat drug overdose and increased ICP; pulmonary edema, CHF Pharmacology Renal

1

Acetazolamide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor; used for glaucoma, metabolic alklalosis; hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, ammonia toxicity, sulfa allergy Pharmacology Renal

2

Furosemide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits NKCC channel, preventing urine concentration; used in hypertension, CHF, hypercalcemia; ototoxicity, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, nephritis, gout, sulfa allergy Pharmacology Renal

3

Ethacrynic acid (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits NKCC channel; used in patients with furosemide (sulfa) allergy; hyperuricemia Pharmacology Renal

4

Hydrochlorothiazide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits NaCl reabsorption in DCT and increases Ca reabsorption; hypertension and hypercalcinuria; hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, sulfa allergy Pharmacology Renal

5

Spironolactone, eplerenone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Aldosterone receptor antagonists; hyperaldosteronism, CHF, hypokalemia; hyperkalemia (arrhythmias), antiandrogen effects with spironolactone Pharmacology Renal

6

Triamterene, amiloride (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Block sodium channels in cortical collecting duct; hyperaldosteronism, CHF Pharmacology Renal

7

Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril (mechanism, use, toxicity)

ACE inhibitor, leads to reduced angiotensin II levels and decreases GFR; prevents heart remodeling, hypertension, CHF; cough, angioedema, transient creatinine increase, hyperkalemia Pharmacology Renal

8

Losartan, valsartan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists; similar to ACE inhibitors, but do not cause cough due to normal metabolism of bradykinin Pharmacology Renal

9

Leuprolide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

GnRH analog that acts as an agonist in pulsatile doses and an antagonist in continuous doses; used as an agonist for infertility and an antagonist for prostate cancer, fibroids, and precocious puberty; antiandrogenic Pharmacology Reproductive

10

Finasteride (mechanism, use, toxicity)

5-alpha reductase inhibitor; used for BPH and male-pattern baldness Pharmacology Reproductive

11

Flutamide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Testosterone receptor antagonist; used in prostate cancer Pharmacology Reproductive

12

Ketoconazole (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits 17,20-desmolase, stopping sex steroid synthesis; used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome Pharmacology Reproductive

13

Clomiphene (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Partial estrogen agonist in the hypothalamus, increases release of LH and FSH, stimulating ovulation; used for infertility and PCOS Pharmacology Reproductive

14

Tamoxifen (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Estrogen receptor antagonist at the breast; used for breast cancer; partial agonist at the uterus, can cause endometrial hyperplasia Pharmacology Reproductive

15

Raloxifene (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Estrogen receptor agonist at bone, inhibits osteoclast activity and stimulates osteoblast activity; used to treat osteoporosis Pharmacology Reproductive

16

Anastrozole, exemestane (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Aromatase inhibitors; used in breast cancer Pharmacology Reproductive

17

Mifepristone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Progesterone receptor antagonist, given with misoprostol for abortion; abortifacient; bleeding, abdominal pain Pharmacology Reproductive

18

Terbutaline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Beta-2 agonist, inhibits uterine contractions Pharmacology Reproductive

19

Tamsulosin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Alpha-1 antagonist; used to treat BPH Pharmacology Reproductive

20

Sildenafil, vardenafil (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, causing inc. cGMP levels and smooth muscle relaxation; used in erectile dysfunction; impaired blue-green vision, contradindicated with nitrates Pharmacology Reproductive

21

Danazol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Partial androgen receptor agonist; used to treat endometriosis and hereditary angioedema; weight gain, acne, hirsutism, low HDL, hepatoxicity Pharmacology Reproductive

22

Treat methemoglobinemia with

Methylene blue Pharmacology Respiratory

23

Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

(First generation) H1 antagonists; used in allergies, motion sickness, insomnia; sedation, antiadrenergic, antiserotonergic, and antimuscarinic effects due to CNS penetration Pharmacology Respiratory

24

Loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetrizine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

H1 antagonists; used in allergies; less fatigue than other antihistamines due to decreased CNS penetration Pharmacology Respiratory

25

Albuterol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Short-acting beta-2 agonist; asthma Pharmacology Respiratory

26

Salmeterol, formoterol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Long-acting beta-2 agonist; asthma; tremor, arrhythmias Pharmacology Respiratory

27

Theophylline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, increases cAMP and causes bronchodilation; asthma; cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity Pharmacology Respiratory

28

Ipratropium (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Muscarinic antagonist, prevents bronchoconstriction; asthma and COPD Pharmacology Respiratory

29

Beclomethasone, fluticasone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibit cytokine synthesis, reducing inflammation due to asthma Pharmacology Respiratory

30

Montelukast, zafirlukast (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Leukotriene receptor antagonists; especially useful in aspirin-induced asthma Pharmacology Respiratory

31

Zileuton (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits activity of 5-lipoxygenase, inhibiting leukotriene production; reduces inflammation Pharmacology Respiratory

32

Omalizumab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Anti-IgE antibody; used in refractory allergic asthma Pharmacology Respiratory

33

Guaifenesin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Thins respiratory secretions Pharmacology Respiratory

34

N-acetylcysteine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Loosens mucus plugs; used in CF patients and as an antidote to acetominaphen posioning Pharmacology Respiratory

35

Bosentan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, reducing vascular resistance in the pulmonary vessels; used in pulmonary hypertension Pharmacology Respiratory

36

Dextromethorphan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Antagonizes NMDA receptors, inhibiting coughing; produces opioid effects in large doses and carries mild abuse potential Pharmacology Respiratory

37

Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Alpha-1 agonists that reduce edema and nasal congestion; rhinitis; hypertension, quick tolerance (recurrence of symptoms despite continued treatment) Pharmacology Respiratory