Classic Labs-Findings Flashcards Preview

Rapid Review STEP 1 > Classic Labs-Findings > Flashcards

Flashcards in Classic Labs-Findings Deck (100):
2

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

3

Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

4

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

5

Antihistone antibodies

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)

6

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)

7

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

Primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

8

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Vasculitis (c-ANCA: Wegener's; p-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome)

9

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type 3 hypersensitivity)

10

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

11

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

12

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

13

"Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

14

Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts

Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

15

Bacitracin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)

16

"Bamboo spine" on x-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

17

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

18

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

19

Bloody tap on LP

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

20

"Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

21

Branching gram-postive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

22

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor

Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)

23

"Brown" tumor of bone

Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica

24

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chaga's disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

25

Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

26

"Chocolate cyst" of the ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

27

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer Wright rosettes (Neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)

28

Colonies of mucoid Pseudonomas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (AR mutation to CFTR resulting in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

29

Decreased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

30

Degeneration of dorsal column nerves

Tabes dorsalis (Tertiary syphilis)

31

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

32

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

33

Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

34

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)

35

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

"Owl's eye" appearance of CMV

36

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei

"Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

37

Eosinophilic cytoplamsic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)

38

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)

39

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

40

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells

Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)

41

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)

42

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)

43

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

44

"Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray

Beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

45

hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)

46

Heart nodules (granulomatous)

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

47

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

48

Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

49

High level of D-dimers

DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC

50

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (Primary TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

51

"Honeycomb lung" on x-ray

Interstitial fibrosis

52

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)

53

Amy Loves you!!

Very very much :)

54

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)

55

Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

56

Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

57

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

58

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increased chance of mesothelioma)

59

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

60

"Lead pipe" appearance of colon on x-ray

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

61

Linear appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

Goodpasture's syndrome

62

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

63

"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofleorescence

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)

64

Lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

65

Mammary gland ("blue-domed") cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

66

Monoclonal antibody spike (4 things)

1. Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA); 2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging); 3. Waldenstrom's (M protein= IgM) macroglobulinemia; 4. Primary amyloidosis

67

Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine

Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine]:, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)

68

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral mucleus

Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)

69

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph

"String sign" (Crohn's disease)

70

Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

71

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

72

Novobiocin response

Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus

73

"Nutmeg" appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

74

"Onion-skin" periosteal reaction

Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)

75

Optochin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: Viridans streptococcus

76

Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area

Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis

77

Podocyte fusion on EM

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

78

Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

79

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer's disease and CJD)

80

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

81

RBC casts in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

82

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusion in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

83

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Acute toxic/viral nephrosis

84

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)

85

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

86

Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii

87

Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance on histology)

Burkitt's lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; "black sky" made up of malignant cells)

88

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

89

"Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

90

"Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

91

Stacks of red blood cells

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

92

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

"clue cells" Gardnerella vaginalis)

93

"Tennis-racket"-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)

94

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

95

"Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

96

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

97

"Tram-track" appearance on LM

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

98

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

99

WBCs that look "smudged"

CLL (almost always B cell; affects the elderly)

100

"wire loop" glomerular appearance on LM

Lupus nephropathy

101

Yellow CSF

Xanthochromia (previous subarachnoid hemorrhage)