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Flashcards in Key Concepts Deck (42)
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1

Hypothesis

A testable statement, when you predict the results you will produce

2

Primary data

New data that the sociologist has created themselves by conducting new research

3

Secondary data

Data that already exists, sociologist use this to do their research.

4

Quantitative Data

Numerical and statistical data that can often be operationalised in some way.

5

Qualitative Data

Descriptive data (words) often concerned with people's feelings and the reasons why.

6

Reliable Data

Wen research can b repeated by a different researcher using the same methods and getting the same results.

7

Valid Data

When research gives a true idea of what is happening.

8

The Survey Population

Everyone - the larger population that a researcher aims to generalise their results on

9

Sampling Frame

A list of people in the desired larger population (in the survey population).

10

Sample

A smaller representative group of people the sociologist will research.

11

Smapling Technique

The way the sociologist picks their sample

12

Sampling Unit

1 Person in the sample

13

Sample Attrition

The number of people who drop out of the research.

14

Random Sampling

People are picked without a system from a list of names - often numbered

15

Systematic Sampling

Names are selected from a sampling frame at regular intervals (e.g. every 10th name)

16

Stratified Random Sampling

Sample tries to reflect the characteristics of the survey population - divided in to sub-groups and the number of names picked depends on that sub-gropus proportions in the survey population.

17

Quota Sampling

Interviews find people to fill pre-set categories - may be according to their proportion in the survey population.

18

Multi-stage Sampling

A samle selected and then a smaller sample is chosen from that sample.

19

Snowball Sampling

Used if it's difficult to find people for a sample - research finds one suitable person and then asks for an introduction to others

20

Volunteer Sample

The research is advertised and participants put themselves forward - participants are self-selected.

21

Non-representative Sample

A group is selected for a particular purpose, which is not representative because it has the particular characteristics that the researcher wants to study.

22

Positivists

Interested in studying in aspects of society which can be objectively observed.
Less interested in the thoughts + feelings of individuals and more interested in 'social facts'

23

Interpretivists

Focus on the meanings behind the behaviour of individuals.

24

Social Desirability Effect

Participants respond in the way that they think is socially acceptable/ expected to respond.

25

Operationalise

When a concept is made measurable

26

Close question

Limited answers the participants can give e.g. multiple choice

27

Open question

The participants are given no suggested answers and requires the participants to answer in their own words.

28

Standardised

When all the variables are the same for every participant e.g. all received the same questionnaire.
Produces reliable data

29

Pilot study

Trial run
Check to see if anything needs to be altered

30

Interview schedule

List of pre-set questions written by the interviewer prior to the structured interview.

31

Interviewer bias

Interview characteristics can influence results + their view of people - if they share the same characteristics they might build a better rapport.

32

Rapport

A good relationship between the participants and the researcher based on trust and a mutual level of respect.

33

Verstehen

Gaining an understanding and empathy towards the participants
(German).

34

Overt observations

Observations carried out openly - the participants know that they are being observed.

35

Covert observations

Undercover observations - the participants don't know that they are being observed.

36

Structured observations

Researcher uses a list of the types of behaviour that they're interested in as a checklist, whilst observing the subject(s).

37

Unstructured observations

No pre-determined list of behaviours to look for. The researcher simply takes notes of what they see and what interests them.

38

Hawthorne effect

When the presence of the researcher changes the behaviour of the group being observed, effecting the validity.

39

Gate keeper

The power of some groups/ people/ organisations who can limit/ allow access to the group being observed.

40

Field diary

Any notes taken by the researcher whilst the observation is taking place.

41

Going native

When the researcher over identifies with the subject and becomes bias - they are no longer objective.

42

Closed setting

Environments which are difficult for a researcher to access, they might require permission from a gate keeper e.g. hospitals, schools, prisons etc.