Flashcards in Key Concepts Deck (42)
A testable statement, when you predict the results you will produce
New data that the sociologist has created themselves by conducting new research
Data that already exists, sociologist use this to do their research.
Numerical and statistical data that can often be operationalised in some way.
Descriptive data (words) often concerned with people's feelings and the reasons why.
Wen research can b repeated by a different researcher using the same methods and getting the same results.
When research gives a true idea of what is happening.
The Survey Population
Everyone - the larger population that a researcher aims to generalise their results on
A list of people in the desired larger population (in the survey population).
A smaller representative group of people the sociologist will research.
The way the sociologist picks their sample
1 Person in the sample
The number of people who drop out of the research.
People are picked without a system from a list of names - often numbered
Names are selected from a sampling frame at regular intervals (e.g. every 10th name)
Stratified Random Sampling
Sample tries to reflect the characteristics of the survey population - divided in to sub-groups and the number of names picked depends on that sub-gropus proportions in the survey population.
Interviews find people to fill pre-set categories - may be according to their proportion in the survey population.
A samle selected and then a smaller sample is chosen from that sample.
Used if it's difficult to find people for a sample - research finds one suitable person and then asks for an introduction to others
The research is advertised and participants put themselves forward - participants are self-selected.
A group is selected for a particular purpose, which is not representative because it has the particular characteristics that the researcher wants to study.
Interested in studying in aspects of society which can be objectively observed.
Less interested in the thoughts + feelings of individuals and more interested in 'social facts'
Focus on the meanings behind the behaviour of individuals.
Social Desirability Effect
Participants respond in the way that they think is socially acceptable/ expected to respond.
When a concept is made measurable
Limited answers the participants can give e.g. multiple choice
The participants are given no suggested answers and requires the participants to answer in their own words.
When all the variables are the same for every participant e.g. all received the same questionnaire.
Produces reliable data
Check to see if anything needs to be altered
List of pre-set questions written by the interviewer prior to the structured interview.
Interview characteristics can influence results + their view of people - if they share the same characteristics they might build a better rapport.
A good relationship between the participants and the researcher based on trust and a mutual level of respect.
Gaining an understanding and empathy towards the participants
Observations carried out openly - the participants know that they are being observed.
Undercover observations - the participants don't know that they are being observed.
Researcher uses a list of the types of behaviour that they're interested in as a checklist, whilst observing the subject(s).
No pre-determined list of behaviours to look for. The researcher simply takes notes of what they see and what interests them.
When the presence of the researcher changes the behaviour of the group being observed, effecting the validity.
The power of some groups/ people/ organisations who can limit/ allow access to the group being observed.
Any notes taken by the researcher whilst the observation is taking place.
When the researcher over identifies with the subject and becomes bias - they are no longer objective.