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Bowles + Gintis


Studied 237 New York High schools
Used questionnaires
+ve correlation between personality traits valued by employers + high grades
Found that schools rewarded personality traits that made for a submissive, compliment worker.


Willmott and Young

Structured telephone interviews
Family life in Bethnal Green in the 70s
Repeated it again in the 90s in the same area
Found than among wc families, new common type of family had emerged - symmetrical.


Dobash and Dobash

Married couple conducted unstructured interviews with resident's of a women refuge.
Research = entitled 'violence against wives'
Sought to understand the experience of women who had been victims of domestic abuse.



Conducted group interviews
Try to understand the 'lad subculture'
Sample = wc boys who he argued developed a subculture with separate n+v, attitudes to mainstream culture.
Later found out that the use of a group interview had affected the validity of his results as the 'lads' deliberately fooled Willis as a joke.


Whyte - Street Corner Society (1955)

Overt PO
Study if a gang in Boston for over 3 1/2 years
Whyte lived in a house with the gang members
Be-firended Doc, gang leader (gate keeper)
Doc knew that Whyte was observing them, but his ID was kept secret form the other gang members


Barker - Making of a Moonie (1984)

Overt PO
Study of a religious sect over 6 year period
Moonie approached her to write an account of the group.


Humphreys - Tea Room Trade (1970)

Covert PO
Study of casual homosexual encounters in men's toilets in the USA
Humphreys acted as a lookout (watch queen) therefore PO.