Kidneys, bladder, male and female pelvis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kidneys, bladder, male and female pelvis Deck (32)
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Musculature of bladder

Smooth muscle walls- detrusor muscle
Goes in 3 directions to maintain structural integrity


What are the 2 sphincters in the bladder

1. Internal urethra sphincter= Involuntary control
- Male= prevent seminal regurgitation during ejaculation
2. External urethral sphincter= voluntary control


Vasculature of bladder

- Internal iliac vessels
- Arterial supply= superior vesical, males assisted by inferior vesical arteries and female vaginal arteries
venous drainage= vesical venous plexus


What's the function of the urethra?

Responsibl for transporting urine from the bladder to the external opening of the urethra


What is the urethra lined with?

Stratified columnar epithelium which is protected from corrosive urine by mucous secreting glands


Male urethra

Provides exit for semen


What is the hip bone?

2 symmetric bones
Part of the pubic girdle- bony structure that attaches the axial skeleton to the lower limb


Articulations Of pelvis

1. sacroiliac joint- Articulation with sacrum and iliac crest
2. Pubic symphysis- articulations with the corresponding hip bone
3. Hip joint- articulation with the head of the femur (socket)


Parts of the pelvis

1. Ilium
2. Pubis
3. Ischium


What is the ilium?

Widest and largest of the 3 parts- expands to form a wing
2 surfaces
1. inner- iliac fossa (concave)
2. External- gluteal surface (convex)- attachment of glute muscles

iliac crest= outside, thicker


What is the pubis?

Body= middle of rami
Superior rami- projects laterally from body, medially
Inferior rami- projects towards ischium
obturator foramen- obturator nerve runs through



Encloses the obturator foreman
Parts= superior, body, inferior, spinal and tuberosity
Binds Sacrospinous (ischial spine to sacrum) and sucrotuberous ligaments (sacrum to ischial tuberoscity0


Inguinal canal

Short passage from abdomen cavity to external genitalia (testes)
Develops from the gonads
flanked by peritoneum


Rings of the inguinal canal

Deep internal ring- found above midpoint of the inguinal ligament, invaginates to fomr covering of contents of inguinal canal
Superficial (external) ring- marks end of inguinal canal superior to pubic turbercle


Walls of the inguinal canal

Posterior wall= Transverse abdominus
Anterior wall= internal and external aponeurosis


Layers of the testes

External - internal
-Spermatic cord
-tunica vaginalis


Anatomical structure of testes

- vas deferens
- tail of epididymis= most distal part, next to vas deferens `
- Body of epididymis= Heavily coiled duct
- Head of epididymis= proximal, tubule to transport sperm
- Seminiferous tubules= series of tubules
- tunica albuginea= fibrous capsule that encloses the testes
- Tunica vaginalis= covering anterior surface of testes


Vascular supply of testes

Testicular arteries
From abdominal aorta
Left testicle drains into left renal vein and right teste drains into inferior vena cava



Root- proximal, not visible
Body- composed of erectile tissue, suspended from pubic symphysis
Glans- distal, contains opening, external urethral meatus


Blood supply to penis

Internal iliac artery
Rectum= inferior mesenteric artery


Parts of the vagina

Vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube, ovaries


Anatomical position of the vagina

Anterior to the vagina is the bladder and the urethra
Posterior to the vagina is the rectum and anus
Laterally to the vagina Is the ureters and uterine arteries


Vasculature of vagina

Internal iliac artery
coming off that is the vaginal and uterine arteries and the ovarian arteries


Ligaments of the uterus

Broad- attaching the sides of the uterus to the pelvis
Round- remnant of the gubernaculum,
Ovarian- Joins the ovaries to the uterus
Cardinal-the cardinal ligament extends from the cervix to the lateral pelvic walls
Uterosacral-Extends from the cervix to the sacrum



Bilateral bean shaped organ
Located in the posterior abdomen- T12-L3
Reddish brown colour


Function of the kidney

Filter and extract water products from the blood
Responsible for electrolyte balance
Kidney- urether- bladder


Parts of the kidney

Renal pyramid
Renal pelvis
Major clayx- minor calices merge to form
Minor calyx- collects urine from the renal pyramid
Ureter- urine drains into here and is stored in the bladder



Abdominal aorta
-Left renal artery
-Right renal artery
Inferior vena cava
-Right renal vein
-Left renal vein
Drainage= right and left renal veins- empty into the inferior vena cava


Anatomical position of the kidney

A- spleen stomach, pancreas, left colic flexure and jejunum, Suprarenal vein
P- Diaphragm, 11/12th rib, psos major quadratus lumborum, nerves

A- supraenal vein, liver, duodenum, right colic flexure
P- diaphragm, 12th rib, same muscles and nerves


What is the difference in the arteries supplying the kidneys?

The right renal artery is larger due to abdominal aorta position
Enters through the hilum dividing into segment branches