KKDP : 1 Neural Basis of Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in KKDP : 1 Neural Basis of Learning Deck (32):
1

What are the 3 behaviours not dependent on learning?

Reflex actions, Fixed action patterns and maturation

2

Reflex Actions

A simple automatic, involuntary behaviour in response to an environmental stimulus

3

Do reflex actions require conscious thought?

Does not require conscious thought

4

What do reflexes allow

Reflexes allow organisms to deal with specific stimuli that are important for their protection or survival

5

What are fixed action patterns

An inborn series of movements or behaviours that occur in almost all members of a species in response to the same specific environmental stimuli

The behaviour is inherited by all members of the species, or one sex of the species and is complex

6

What is Maturation

It involves an orderly sequence of bodily changes, that occur due to development of nervous system structures

7

Reflex actions vs Fixed action patterns

Similarity
1. Both are innate and play a role in survival

Difference
1. FAP's are more complex and play a role in social behaviour
2. Reflex actions do occur in humans, but FAPS do not (lower order species

8

How does learning effect neural pathways

Learning generally involves the formation of new neural pathways of a strengthening of existing connections between neutrons

9

What happens when we learn a new skill/information?

Neutrons form new connections with each other called synaptogenisis

10

Synaptogenesis

New sprouts, called filigree appendages begin to grow from the axon terminal towards the dendrites of neighbouring, post synaptic neurons

11

The more a pathway is activated during learning...

The more it is strengthened and it is less likely the learning will be forgotten

12

What are the neurotransmitters involved in learning?

Glutamate
Dopamine

13

Glutamate

Linked to learning and the process of encoding,
It is released by the presynaptic neuron and is excitatory which produces long lasting changes to the synapse

14

Dopamine

Closely associated with reward. Seeking behaviours such as addiction, dopamine is released as a motivational substance as a consequence of reward anticipation

15

How glutamate and dopamine act together

After repeated glutamate release, dopamine is usually stimulated which activates the genes in the neurons to make permanent changes to the pathway

16

What is learning?

It is a relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge that occurs as a result of experience

It can be active, passive, immediate or delayed

17

Plasticity

It is the ability of the brain’s neural structure to be changed by experience throughout the lifespan

18

Developmental plasticity

Changes in the brain’s neural structure in response to experience during its growth & development

19

adaptive plasticity

Changes in the brains neural structure that enables adjustment to experience, and/or to compensate for a loss of function in the event of brain damage.

20

What are the 5 steps involved in developmental plasticity

Proliferation
Migration
Circuit formation
Circuit pruning
Myelination

21

Proliferation

the process where the unborn baby’s cells that will become neurons divide and multiply

22

Migration

neurons move outwards to their destined location

23

Circuit Formation

the axons of new neurons grow out the target cells and form synapses with them.

24

Circuit Pruning

elimination of excess neurons and synapse that are not being used and have not established a connection with target cells.

25

Myelination

axon of the neurons in the child’s brain becomes covered in myelin.

26

What is involved in adaptive plasticity

Generally, adaptive plasticity enables the brain to compensate for damage by reorganising its structure.

27

what are the 2 processes of recovery found in adaptive plasticity

rerouting and sprouting.

28

rerouting

Rerouting involves an undamaged neuron that has lost a connection with an active neuron, seeking a new active neuron to connect with instead.

29

Sprouting

Sprouting involves the growth of new, bushier nerve fibres with more branches to make new connections.

30

What are sensitive periods (experience expectant learning)

1) The brain ‘expects’ and is primed for being exposed to environmental experiences resulting in a rewiring of the brain

2) the growing brain requires specific types of stimulation so that neural pathways are established

3) brain is dependent on the individual being exposed to certain experiences for these changes to occur

31

experience dependent learning

1) additional skills that are developed as a result of experience throughout our lifespan.

2) brain does not necessarily expect to be exposed to these experiences and therefore there is no optimal time for this time for this form of learning.

32

critical periods

Are very narrow stages of development during which organisms are pre-programmed to learn