Flashcards in KKDP : 3 Operant Conditioning Deck (21):
What is operant conditioning
It refers to learning in which behaviour becomes controlled by its consequences
What is an operant response?
a response that occurs without any stimulus causing it - that is a voluntary behaviour
what is the D-B-C of operant conditioning
D - discriminative stimulus (the environment or stimulus that leads to the behaviour)
B - Behaviour (operant response)
C - consequence (reinforcer)
what are the 4 different consequences of operant conditioning?
a reward which strengthens a response by providing a pleasant or satisfying consequence
The removal, reduction or prevention of an unpleasant stimulus
a punisher is any stimulus that weakened or decreases the likelihood of a response
positive punishment ( involves a behaviour being followed by a negative consequence)
is also a form of punishment that occurs when something desirable is removed
Schedules of reinforcement
the frequency and manner in which a response is reinforced
when a correct response is reinforced every time it is given - this is necessary in the acquisition stage
when only some correct reposes are reinforced
what are the 4 schedules?
reinforcement is delivered after a fixed time period as long as at least one correct response is given
reinforcement is delivered after a fixed number of correct responses
reinforcement is delivered after an average amount of time
reinforcement is delivered after an average number of correct responses
- most resistant to extinction
what schedules are best for acquisition ?
FR - VR - FI - Vi
what schedules are best for preventing extinction ?
VR - Vi - FI/FR
what is shaping ?
A procedure in which a reinforcer us given for a response that successively approximates and ultimately leads to the final desired response
are settings in which an individual receives tokens for desired behaviours and these can then be collected and exchanged for 'real' rewards