KKDP : 3 Operant Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in KKDP : 3 Operant Conditioning Deck (21):
1

What is operant conditioning

It refers to learning in which behaviour becomes controlled by its consequences

2

What is an operant response?

a response that occurs without any stimulus causing it - that is a voluntary behaviour

3

what is the D-B-C of operant conditioning

D - discriminative stimulus (the environment or stimulus that leads to the behaviour)

B - Behaviour (operant response)

C - consequence (reinforcer)

4

what are the 4 different consequences of operant conditioning?

Positive reinforcement

Negative reinforcement

punishment

response cost

5

Positive reinforcement

a reward which strengthens a response by providing a pleasant or satisfying consequence

6

Negative reinforcement

The removal, reduction or prevention of an unpleasant stimulus

7

Punishment

a punisher is any stimulus that weakened or decreases the likelihood of a response

positive punishment ( involves a behaviour being followed by a negative consequence)

8

Response cost

is also a form of punishment that occurs when something desirable is removed

9

Schedules of reinforcement

the frequency and manner in which a response is reinforced

10

continuous reinforcement

when a correct response is reinforced every time it is given - this is necessary in the acquisition stage

11

partial reinforcement

when only some correct reposes are reinforced

12

what are the 4 schedules?

Fixed ratio

fixed interval

variable ratio

variable interval

13

fixed interval

reinforcement is delivered after a fixed time period as long as at least one correct response is given

14

fixed ratio

reinforcement is delivered after a fixed number of correct responses

15

variable interval

reinforcement is delivered after an average amount of time

16

variable ratio

reinforcement is delivered after an average number of correct responses

- most resistant to extinction

17

what schedules are best for acquisition ?

FR - VR - FI - Vi

18

what schedules are best for preventing extinction ?

VR - Vi - FI/FR

19

what is shaping ?

A procedure in which a reinforcer us given for a response that successively approximates and ultimately leads to the final desired response

20

Token economies

are settings in which an individual receives tokens for desired behaviours and these can then be collected and exchanged for 'real' rewards

21

disadvantages of token economy

people may feel manipulated or refuse to co - operate

can also fail if the underlying causes of behaviour are not addressed