Flashcards in Klicker Chapter 8 Deck (82):
In Scandinavia, cremation began in the _____________
Middle Bronze Age
Cremation continued as the favored method of disposition until
10th Century AD
Cremation's popularity in northern Europe was based on two new ideas about the afterlife
Cremation kept the spirits of the dead from harming the living
Cremation freed the spirit
Widely practices throughout these countries, the stage was set for cremation to remain the disposition of choice
Members of the Cult of Osiris believed those who had shunned evil would have a prosperous afterlife, for which it was necessary to preserve the body in its most perfect form, leading them to embark on what?
The effects of the beliefs of the Cult of Osiris filtered into what religions?
Hebrew and early Christian
Cremation was prevalent in Rome until when?
The first century after Christ
Christians emulated _____________- by gradually replacing the ancient tradition with tomb burial which became the preferred disposition for 1900 years
When was the first cremation in the United States held?
December 6, 1876
How long after the first cremation in the US did the practice become popular?
80 years later
The '60s was a decade of
The '70s was a decade of
The '80s was a decade of
The '90s was a decade of
The 21st Century is the
Age of Acceptance
During the early 1960s, funeral practice was somewhat typical throughout the US. Almost every deceased body was
Embalmed, dressed, casketed, and a funeral was held and burial or cremation followed
If cremated in the early 1960s, what happened to the cremated remains?
They were inurned in a niche or buried in a cemetery
Things changed remarkably in 1963. Why?
Jessica Mitford's book The American way of death was released
What stopped Jessica Mitford's book from gaining more popularity than it did?
Assassination of JFK
Instead of responding to consumer change in a positive, creative fashion, what did most funeral directors do?
Resisted cremation and other non-traditional services
The funeral directors mindset in the 60s was what?
Traditional funerals were the only appropriate kind of funeral
Many funeral directors imposed their own beliefs on families who desired simplistic ways o coping with death, thus creating what?
A roadblock to their caregiving
There was a ____________ to not selling an embalmed casket service
Negative Economic effect
Most funeral homes did not have adequate facilities to hold these
Funeral directors had ______________________ in dealing with nontraditional families and services
Very Little preparation or training
During the late 1960s, the US population was becoming
More diverse and mobile
Family structure was changing in the late 60s, and rituals that were appropriate for nuclear and extended families were not as functional for
Society in general in the late 60s was becoming
This caused many people to question American tradition
Baby boomers expressed themselves verbally by
Parents and grandparents of baby boomers expressed themselves non-verbally by
Not having funerals for the deceased loved ones
During the times of radical social change of the 1960s, many funeral directors were turning their backs on consumers who were not subscribing to
Funeral homes simply refused to serve whom?
Simple Cremation families
Some funeral homes would do what to discourage simple cremation families?
Charge unjustified prices
A cremation society in Southern California
A cremation society in Northern California
During this decade of resistance to change, the funeral industry received tremendous support from caregiving medical expers and organizations like
Kubler-Ross and the hospice movement
What percentage of people die under hospice?
Kubler-Ross and the hospice movement Validated this
The reality of grief at death
Kuler-Ross and the hospice movement Confirmed this
The need to express grief
In the 1980s, funeral homes were changing gears and trying to
Tap into the Simple Cremation Business
Funeral directors were learning in the 80s to change their mindset about families who desired cremation, realizing what?
All people grieve, but not all grieve alike or express their grief in the same manner
Funeral Directors were discovering cremation as
A means to an end, not an end itself
What is the profile of the Cremation Consumer
More likely to have moved away from family roots
What percentage of people choose cremation to save money?
What percentage of people choose cremation to save land
What percentage of people are choosing cremation because it is simpler?
What percentage of people are choosing cremation because they do not what their body in the earth?
What percentage of people choose cremation because it was the preference of the deceased?
People are _________ and choosing cremation for themselves
Migration to _____________ is increasing
Cremation has become
These are becoming more important
This is rising
Level of education
Ties to ________ are becoming weaker
Greater _________ in memorialization services
What are the (8) trends affecting cremation?
People are dying older and choosing cremation for themselves
Migration to retirement homes is increasing
Cremation has become acceptable
Environmental considerations are becoming more important
Level of education is rising
Ties to tradition are becoming weaker
Regional differences are diminishing
Greater flexibility in memorialization services
Gilligan lists the top ten scenarios causing cremation suits
Cremating the wrong body
Cremating without authority
Cremating without informed consent
Cremating jewelry or personal effects
Cremating medical devices
Co-mingling cremated remains
Failure to return all of the cremated remains
Misidentification of the cremated remains
Mis-delivery of cremated remains
The biggest liability in cremation is
Cremating the wrong body
Legal experts are recommending that funeral homes require this when the family requests no viewing
Identification of the remains
Identification certifies that this is
The right person beyond any doubt
the Irreversibility of the cremation process
The process of grieving
Identification should be performed by whom?
The next of kin or their designated-in-writing representative
Identification should take place at the funeral home in an appropriate room such as
A small chapel or slumber room
What is the recommended procedure for preparing remains for identification
Aspirate but do not add cavity
Clean the body
Close the eyes and lips
Remove pacemakers, IV's catheters
Wash and comb hair
Position body in natural repose
Cover with clean sheet
What are some different options for Cremated Remains?
Launch into space
Submerged underwater as a reef
Memorialized in art
Made into Jewelry
Tossing cremated remains to the wind (knowing wind direction is important)
A shallow trench is dug in the soil and filled with the cremains
The cremated human remains are poured onto the ground and raked into the soil or garden
Occurs when the cremated remains are scattered over a body of water
When cremated remains are cast from a private plane
Cremains can be buried in a hole in the ground
Baby boomers fail to see the _____ in funeral service
Baby boomers do not have the same __________ as their parents
Baby boomers are attracted to these
Personalized and flexible services
Baby boomers see funerals as _______ not a social event
When the baby boomers hears the word funeral, they think of
Men over 55 are of the _____ thinking
Throw me in a pine box
Women over 55 tend to be
Socially active mothers who want to protect their children from the stress of making funeral arrangements