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Flashcards in Klicker Chapter 8 Deck (82):
1

In Scandinavia, cremation began in the _____________

Middle Bronze Age

2

Cremation continued as the favored method of disposition until

10th Century AD

3

Cremation's popularity in northern Europe was based on two new ideas about the afterlife

Cremation kept the spirits of the dead from harming the living
Cremation freed the spirit

4

Widely practices throughout these countries, the stage was set for cremation to remain the disposition of choice

Europe
Greece
Scandinavia
India
China

5

Members of the Cult of Osiris believed those who had shunned evil would have a prosperous afterlife, for which it was necessary to preserve the body in its most perfect form, leading them to embark on what?

Mummification

6

The effects of the beliefs of the Cult of Osiris filtered into what religions?

Hebrew and early Christian

7

Cremation was prevalent in Rome until when?

The first century after Christ

8

Christians emulated _____________- by gradually replacing the ancient tradition with tomb burial which became the preferred disposition for 1900 years

Christ's entombment

9

When was the first cremation in the United States held?

December 6, 1876

10

How long after the first cremation in the US did the practice become popular?

80 years later

11

The '60s was a decade of

Change

12

The '70s was a decade of

Resistance

13

The '80s was a decade of

Transition

14

The '90s was a decade of

Fine-Tuning

15

The 21st Century is the

Age of Acceptance

16

During the early 1960s, funeral practice was somewhat typical throughout the US. Almost every deceased body was

Embalmed, dressed, casketed, and a funeral was held and burial or cremation followed

17

If cremated in the early 1960s, what happened to the cremated remains?

They were inurned in a niche or buried in a cemetery

18

Things changed remarkably in 1963. Why?

Jessica Mitford's book The American way of death was released

19

What stopped Jessica Mitford's book from gaining more popularity than it did?

Assassination of JFK

20

Instead of responding to consumer change in a positive, creative fashion, what did most funeral directors do?

Resisted cremation and other non-traditional services

21

The funeral directors mindset in the 60s was what?

Traditional funerals were the only appropriate kind of funeral

22

Many funeral directors imposed their own beliefs on families who desired simplistic ways o coping with death, thus creating what?

A roadblock to their caregiving

23

There was a ____________ to not selling an embalmed casket service

Negative Economic effect

24

Most funeral homes did not have adequate facilities to hold these

Unembalmed bodies

25

Funeral directors had ______________________ in dealing with nontraditional families and services

Very Little preparation or training

26

During the late 1960s, the US population was becoming

More diverse and mobile

27

Family structure was changing in the late 60s, and rituals that were appropriate for nuclear and extended families were not as functional for

Fragmented families

28

Society in general in the late 60s was becoming

Non-churched

29

This caused many people to question American tradition

Vietnam War

30

Baby boomers expressed themselves verbally by

Questioning authority

31

Parents and grandparents of baby boomers expressed themselves non-verbally by

Not having funerals for the deceased loved ones

32

During the times of radical social change of the 1960s, many funeral directors were turning their backs on consumers who were not subscribing to

Traditional funerals

33

Funeral homes simply refused to serve whom?

Simple Cremation families

34

Some funeral homes would do what to discourage simple cremation families?

Charge unjustified prices

35

A cremation society in Southern California

Telophase

36

A cremation society in Northern California

Neptune

37

During this decade of resistance to change, the funeral industry received tremendous support from caregiving medical expers and organizations like

Kubler-Ross and the hospice movement

38

What percentage of people die under hospice?

46%

39

Kubler-Ross and the hospice movement Validated this

The reality of grief at death

40

Kuler-Ross and the hospice movement Confirmed this

The need to express grief

41

In the 1980s, funeral homes were changing gears and trying to

Tap into the Simple Cremation Business

42

Funeral directors were learning in the 80s to change their mindset about families who desired cremation, realizing what?

All people grieve, but not all grieve alike or express their grief in the same manner

43

Funeral Directors were discovering cremation as

A means to an end, not an end itself

44

What is the profile of the Cremation Consumer

More Educated
Higher Income
Less Religious
More likely to have moved away from family roots

45

What percentage of people choose cremation to save money?

30%

46

What percentage of people choose cremation to save land

13%

47

What percentage of people are choosing cremation because it is simpler?

8%

48

What percentage of people are choosing cremation because they do not what their body in the earth?

6%

49

What percentage of people choose cremation because it was the preference of the deceased?

6%

50

People are _________ and choosing cremation for themselves

Dying older

51

Migration to _____________ is increasing

Retirement locations

52

Cremation has become

Acceptable

53

These are becoming more important

Environmental Considerations

54

This is rising

Level of education

55

Ties to ________ are becoming weaker

Tradition

56

Greater _________ in memorialization services

Flexibility

57

What are the (8) trends affecting cremation?

People are dying older and choosing cremation for themselves
Migration to retirement homes is increasing
Cremation has become acceptable
Environmental considerations are becoming more important
Level of education is rising
Ties to tradition are becoming weaker
Regional differences are diminishing
Greater flexibility in memorialization services

58

Gilligan lists the top ten scenarios causing cremation suits

Cremating the wrong body
Cremating without authority
Cremating without informed consent
Cremating jewelry or personal effects
Cremating medical devices
Co-mingling cremated remains
Failure to return all of the cremated remains
Misidentification of the cremated remains
Mis-delivery of cremated remains

59

The biggest liability in cremation is

Cremating the wrong body

60

Legal experts are recommending that funeral homes require this when the family requests no viewing

Identification of the remains

61

Identification certifies that this is

The right person beyond any doubt

62

Identification underscores

Professional responsibilities

63

Identification stresses

the Irreversibility of the cremation process

64

Identification facilitates

The process of grieving

65

Identification should be performed by whom?

The next of kin or their designated-in-writing representative

66

Identification should take place at the funeral home in an appropriate room such as

A small chapel or slumber room

67

What is the recommended procedure for preparing remains for identification

Aspirate but do not add cavity
Clean the body
Close the eyes and lips
Remove pacemakers, IV's catheters
Wash and comb hair
Position body in natural repose
Cover with clean sheet

68

What are some different options for Cremated Remains?

Launch into space
Submerged underwater as a reef
Memorialized in art
Made into Jewelry
Keepsakes

69

Tossing cremated remains to the wind (knowing wind direction is important)

Casting

70

A shallow trench is dug in the soil and filled with the cremains

Trenching

71

The cremated human remains are poured onto the ground and raked into the soil or garden

Raking

72

Occurs when the cremated remains are scattered over a body of water

Water Scattering

73

When cremated remains are cast from a private plane

Aerial Scattering

74

Cremains can be buried in a hole in the ground

Burial

75

Baby boomers fail to see the _____ in funeral service

Value

76

Baby boomers do not have the same __________ as their parents

Religious beliefs

77

Baby boomers are attracted to these

Personalized and flexible services

78

Baby boomers see funerals as _______ not a social event

Religious event

79

When the baby boomers hears the word funeral, they think of

Church

80

Men over 55 are of the _____ thinking

Throw me in a pine box

81

Women over 55 tend to be

Socially active mothers who want to protect their children from the stress of making funeral arrangements

82

The level of trust in funeral directors is _____ with cremation customers

Lower