Klicker- Chapter 8- Cremation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Klicker- Chapter 8- Cremation Deck (67):

Cremation began at this time, around 3,000 BC.

Early Stone Age (CANA)


In this era, 1,000BC, the practice of cremation was widespread from Ireland to Hungary where the process of cremation symbolized refinement of the precious essence of spirit, just as precious metals were smelted and refined by fire.

Early Iron Age


Cremation was the predominant mode of disposition in this country. (Simultaneous to the stone and early iron ages)

  • Great atheletic games described by Homer that preceded cremation
  • Lavish bonfire built for the hero Patroclus, who was clothed in linen, cremated, and his remains placed in a golden vase.
  • Also practiced earth burial, believed the cremation fire symbolized purification and the relase of the spirit from the body.
  • Allowed easy transport of slain warriors home from the battlefield.



Cremation here begain in the Early Bronze Age and continued as the favored method of disposition until the 10th century A.D. Popularity of cremation was based on two new ideas about the afterlife:

  1. Cremation kept the spirits of the dead from harming the living
  2. Believed it freed the spirits (like the Greeks)

Scandinavia (Northern Europe)


Placed in his ship, which was laden with rugs and chusions of a brocaded Byzantine slik. Dressed in silk with gold buttons and sable fur, he was accompanied by a surfeit of food and animals, all his weapons, and finally, a slave girl who volunteered to accompany her master to paradise. The ship was either set ablaze and launched to sea or burned on land.

  • The higher the smoke raised, the higher this person was raised.

Viking Cheiftain Cremations


  1. Members of the cult of Osiris, in Egypt, believed those who had shunned evil would have a prosperous afterlife, for which it was necessary to preserve the body in its most perfect form. (Mummification to preserve, used elaborate tombs) Effect of this belief filtered into the Hebrew and early Christian religions.
  2. Cremation was prevalent in Rome until the first century after Christ, when in opposition to Rome's paganism, Christians emulated Christ's entombment by gradually replacing the ancient traidition with earth burial, which became the preferred disposition for the next 1,900 years.

Two Factors that Intervened with Cremation to remain the Disposition of Choice

(Despite being widely practiced in Europe, Greece, Scandinavia, India, and China)


  • Partially a response to the successful efforts of Protestant clergy to induce the legislative bodies in the American colonies to reduce funeral expenses.
  • Contributing factor was a concern for health

introduction of cremation in North America in the 18th century and its slight rise in popularity in the 19th century


Cremation was not a noble act. It was a tawdy affair, demeaning the deceased and the survivors, and threatening undertaker's livelihoods.

  • Funeral directors and consumers alike shared this self-perpetuating attitude.
  • Combined with a deeply rooted belief that only pagans practiced cremation, it ensured cremation did not gain a stronghold.

Seed Planted in Undertaker's Minds


First cremation in the United States.

  • Cremation societies and crematories were formed in the 1880s
  • It was not until 80 years later that crematino became popular

December 6, 1876


Can be attributed to the concern about the increasing cost of earth burial and the rapid sociological/spiritual changes in the 1960s.

  • Neither circumstance encouraged proper memorilization for consumers choosing cremation.
    • ceremonies abandoned
    • if remains are not scattered, they remained unclaimed
    • no honorable precedents or traditions were established

Interest in Cremation


  • Funeral practice was somewhat typical throughout the United States.
  • Almost every deceased body was embalmed, dressed, casketed, and a funeral was held and burial or cremation followed.
  • If cremation was chosen, the cremated remains were inurned in a niche o buried in a cemetery.

Early 1960's


The funeral profession ignored her criticisms, the public did not.

  • Funeral directors continued to offer primarily traidtional services, which were often impersonal and lacked a choice of alternatives for families.
  • Memorial societies were gaining in popularity mainly because of this woman and other advocates of simple, non-embalmed, non-casketed cremation services.

Jessica Mitford's Book (1963) The American Way of Death


  • The funeral director's mind-set in the 60s was that traiditional funerals were the only appropriate kind of funeral.
  • Many funeral directors imposed their own beliefs on families who desired simplistic ways of coping with death, thus creating a roadblock to their caregiving
  • There was a negative economic effect of not selling an embalmed casket service.
  • Most funeral homes did not have adequate facilities to hold unembalmed bodies.
  • Funeral directors had very little preparation or training in dealing with nontraditional families and services.

Instead of responding to consumer change in a positive, creative fashion, most funeral directors resisted siple cremation and other nontraditional services for many reasons, such as (1960s):


  • US population was becoming more diverse and mobile
  • Family structure was changing and rituals that were appropriate for nuclear and extended families were not as functional for fragmented families
  • Society in general was becoming non-churched
  • Vietnam War caused many people to question American traidtion
  • Baby boomers expressed themselves verbally by questioning authority, many of their parents and grandparents expressed themselves non-verbally by not having funerals for deceased loved ones.
  • Funeral directors turned their backs on consumers not subscribing to traidtional funerals. (refused simple cremation families or charged unjustified prices, not caring for the families properly or their deceased loved ones).
  • Many people were looking for someone other than their local funeral director to better serve them.

The Late '60s. (Time of Radical Social Change)


  • Telephase, a cremation society in Southern California, and Neptune, a cremation society in Northern California, were here to stay.
    • Funeral directors tried to outlaw societies like these
  • Funeral industry received tremendous support from caregiving medical experts and organizations like Kubler-Ross and the hospice movement.- validated the reality of grief at death and confirmed the need to express it.
    • Reaffired the value of the funeral ritual, but requested that more options are available and more reasonable prices
      • Funeral directors resisted this request

The 70s- A Decade of Resistance


  • Funeral directors noticed that California cremation societies were successful (economically) in serving the public with simple cremation- taking a large share of the market, continuing to thrive.
  • Funeral homes added slogans- "we provide simple cremation services"
    • although effective, reinforced the idea that cremation was an alternative to funerals
  • FTC promulgated the Funeral Rule- the 80's were a time of catching up
  • Profession was quickly realizing that "order taking" was effective with traidtional families, but not with contemporary non-traiditional cremation-minded people.
  • Funeral directors learning to change mindset about direct cremation families- people grieve, but not all grieve alike or express grief in the same manner.
  • Cremation is a means to an ends, not an ends to itself
  • With cremation comes opportunities for services and new merchandise
  • Cremation societies began providing memorial services and merchandise
  • The funeral director learned to be well-educated and knowledgable not only about grief but also about different cutures, religions, and family dynamics.

The '80s- A Decade of Transition


  • Cremation increasing at a rapid and steady pace
  • Catholic church (1997) allowed cremated remains to be present at a funeral mass which resulted in the general public to become more accepting of cremation.
  • Funeral directors saw that cremation was going to become more prominent in te future of funeral service
  • Funeral supply industry stepped up its education to funeral directors on this topic.

The 90's- A decade of Fine-Tuning


  • Rate of cremation shows continued growth and it is anticipated that this growth will continue into the future.
  • Funeral suppliers are marketing cremation products with the same intensity as burial merchandise
  • Consultants to the profession continue to educate funeral directors on how to make cremation arrangements and merchandise cremation products.

21st Century- The Age of Acceptance


  • 2000- 26%
  • 2003- 29%
  • 2004- 30%
  • 2005- 32%
  • 2010- 38%
  • 2025- 51%

Percentage of Cremations by Year


  • More educated
  • Higher income
  • Less religious
  • More likely to have moved away from family roots

Profile of the Cremation Consumer (Reserch- 2007)


Page 87 in Klicker

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Likelihood of Using Cremation


Page 88 in  Klicker Book

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Likelihood of Cremation based on Income and Education


  1. Saves money (30%)
  2. Saves land (13%)
  3. Simpler (8%)
  4. Body not in the earth (6%)
  5. Preference of the deceased (6%)

Why People Choose Cremation (Werthlin Group's 2005 Survey)


  • Cremation (39% in 1995)- 46%
  • Cremation with some type of ceremony (85% in 1995)- 89%
  • A traditional funeral- 32%
  • A private service- 26%
  • A memorial service- 25%
  • To purchase an urn- 56%
  • Scattering of cremains- 39%
  • To keep urn at home- 10%

Other Statistics- Americans planning to choose:


  • Hawaii- 67.5%
  • Nevada- 67.3%
  • Arizona- 59.1%

Highest Percentage Cremation States


  • Mississippi- 8.8%
  • Alabama- 9.1%
  • Tennessee- 9.4%

Lowest Percentage Cremation States


  • People are dying older and choosing cremation for themselves
  • Migration to retirement locations is increasing
  • Cremation has become acceptable
  • Environmental considerations are becoming more important
  • Level of education is rising
  • Ties to tradition are becoming weaker
  • Regional differences are diminishing
  • Greater flexibility in memorialization services

Trends Affecting Cremation


  • the word "cremation" to a funeral directors is likely to be met with a range of strong emotions from enthusiasm to bewilderment to distain
  • Families using cremation usually spend less money on the funeral
  • Some families using cremation spend the same or more
  • 2001- $2,050 versus $4,788
  • 2002- $2,244 versus $4,889
  • 2003- $2,251 versus $5,570
  • 2004- $2,278 versus $5,689
  • 2005- $2,336 versus $5,961

Cremation Spending


  1. Cremating the wrong body (biggest liability)
  2. Cremating without authority
  3. Cremating without informed consent
  4. Cremating jewelry or personal effects
  5. Cremating medical devices
  6. Co-mingling cremated remains
  7. Failure to return all of the cremated remains
  8. Misidentification of cremated remains
  9. Mis-delivery of cremated remains

Cremation Liability

Gilligan's (2003) List of the top Nine Scenarios Causing Litigation


  • Identification certifies that this is the right person beyond any doubt
  • Identification underscores the professional responsibilities we assume in providing disposition.
  • Identification stresses the irreversibility of the cremation process
  • Identification facilitates the process of greiving. The majority of memories are visual. Seeing the person dead is a powerful confrontation that undercuts the normal tendency to deny that a death has occurred. If at least one person in the family certifies personally to the death, it becomes easier for others to accept the finality of death and to proceed with their mourning. The "missing person" phenomenon teaches us that the absence of positive identification can complicate bereavement.

Viewing for Identification 

Kubasak (2002) States that Identification Makes Sense Professionally, Practically, and Legally for the Following Reasons:


Identification should be performed by the next of kind or their designated __ ______ _____ (relative, clergy, best friend).

In-Writing Representative


The funeral home should take the photograph after obtaining written permission to do so. 

  • If the family brings in their own photograph, it must be recent enough for valid comparison and must be retained in the decedent's file.
  • The person making the identification should sign the back of the photograph, noting the date and time the identification occurred.

If Identification is done by Photograph


  • Should be done at the funeral home in an appropriate room- small chapel or slumber room
  • Never done in a garage, flower room, storage room, preparation room, or carport area.

Appropriate Room for identification


Families should be informed that identification viewing is not the same as formal viewing and that it is a very time-limited act, usually taking from several seconds to several minutes. Frank discussion reduces the possibility of misunderstanding about its purpose.

During the Arrangement Conference


Whenever possible, identification should take pace with the deceased in this container.

Casket or Container to be used for the cremation, burial, entombment, or shipment.


Inform him or her where it will take place, what he or she will see, and how the deceased is covered. Disclose that the body may not be embalmed, dressed in normal attire or clean-shaven. If there was a post-mortem examination or there are manifestations of trauma or disfigurement, mention this as well as any other relevant details.

Prepare the person who will be making the identification before it occurs.


  • States the name of the deceased, date of death, and the name and relationship of the person with the right of disposition.
  • If the next of kin designates another person to make the identification, it should be done in writing, noting the relationship of the person designated by the next of kin.
  • Once the identification is complete, have the person making the identification sign the form and indicate the date and time it occurred.

Prepare a form on your letterhead


Invite the person who made the identification to sit in your office and answer any questions that may arise.

After the Identification has Occurred


Some funeral homes present a flower or other small token to the person making the identification.

Small Tokens


  • Varies with each funeral home
  • Sometimes depends on if the funeral home has refrigeration

Level of Care Given to the Body before Identification


  • Varies with each funeral home.
  • May be determined by the amount of preparation required

Charge for Identification


  • Aspirate cavities, but do not add cavity fluid.
  • Clean the body
  • Close the eyes and lips
  • Remove pacemakers, IVs, catheters
  • Wash and comb hair
  • Position body in natural repose
  • Cover with clean sheet

Recommended Procedure for Preparing Remains for Identification:


  • Reasons range
  • Not wanting to take the time to prepare the body
  • Not wanting to put stress on the family
  • May prepare the body and still have the family upset
  • Family will invite other people without telling the funeral director

Many Funeral Homes do not Require Identification


  • Launched into space
  • Submerged underwater as a reef
  • Memoralized in art
  • Made into jewelry
  • Keepsakes

Disposition Options for Cremated Remains (Unique, since 1988)


A small portion of 1-7 grams can be launched into space to either orbit the earth or be sent into deep space.

Launched into Space


Specialized companies will mix the cremains with concrete. The concrete is then fashioned into a reef that is eventually submerged onto the ocean floor. The cremains can be co-mingled with other cremains for larger reefs, or a smaller reef can be constructed of one individual.

Submerged Underwater as a Reef


There are companies that will combine cremated remains with paint to make pictures, with glass to form sculptures, and each year there seems to be some new form of art available.

Memoralized in Art


A family can choose to have cremains processed under heat and pressure until the component carbon is turned into a man-made diamond which can be fashioned into jewelry.

Made into Jewelry


Small amounts of cremains can be placed inside pendants for families to wear as jewelry, or there are specialized small containers that are used to divide cremains among family members.



Many experts predict that by 2025, over 50% of all consumers will want to be cremated. If you were to choose cremation for yourself or a family member, which would you want?

  • Ashes scattered somewhere - 49%
  • Ashes placed in an urn and kept at home- 9%
  • Ashes placed in something other than an urn- 2%
  • Ashes buried in a grave (ground)- 17%
  • Ashes placed in an above ground columbarium- 5%
  • Don't care- 18%

Random Survery by The American Funeral Director (2004)


  • Can give the consumer guidance as to options and any legal restrictions they may need to follow.
  • The funeral can add ceremonies as a value-added service to families 
  • Offering of these services can strengthen customer loyalty and the buiding of relationships.

Familes do not need a Funeral Director to Scatter Cremated Remains


  • Casting
  • Trenching
  • Raking
  • Water scattering
  • Aerial scattering
  • Burial

Scattering Options Available to Consumers (Stabb 2006)


Tossing cremated remains to the wind. Most of the cremains will quickly fall to the ground but some lighter dust will become airborne, so knowing the wind direction is important.



A shallow trench is dug in the soil and filled with the cremains. The soil is then placed over the cremains. This could be done on a beach, and the design of the trench can be simple of creative.



The cremated human remains are poured onto the ground and raked into the soil or garden.



Occurs when the cremated remains are scattered over a body of water. An option for this is to place the cremains in a water-soluble urn that will slowly degrade and disperse the cremains.

Water Scattering


When cremated remains are cast from a private plane. Pilots who offer this service may allow family members to be passengers or provide a photo or certificate.

Aerial Scattering


Cremains can be buried in a hole in the ground, either in or out of an urn or container. If a family wishes to bury in a gravesite, the cemetery will have rules and costs for allowing this option.



Recommends that funeral directors may want to suggest to a family who desires scattering that they may want to retain a small amount of the cremains and place them in a location or object that lets them have a final resting place they may visit.

  • Some people find comfort in visiting.

Trovinger (2006)


Niche or Columbarium

  • found at cemeteries or churches

Always an option to the family


  1. Baby boomers
  2. Men over 55
  3. Women over 55

Three Groups of the Cremation Market (Jim Rudolph)


Making providers of death care services rethink what they do becase they:

  • Fail to see the value in the funeral service
  • Do not have the same religious beliefs as their parents
  • Are attracted to personalized and flexible services
  • See funerals as a religious event and not a social event
  • Think of church when they hear the word "funeral"

Baby Boomers


"We must communicate the social value of coming together, sharing, and greiving."

Success with Baby Boomers


  • Typically will call around for information on price and sevice
  • Usually funeral director will think that the firm will lose business to a low-price direct provider.
  • Several days later, will call back requesting that the funeral home take care of a parent because they felt comfortable with the firm.

Baby Boomers- Price Shopping


  • "Throw me in a pine box" segment of the market
  • Dont want a fuss
  • Nontraiditional thinkers
  • Nonconformists
  • Tend to not belong to a church
  • Sunday golfers, tennis players, hikers, and fishermen

Men Over 55


  • Tend to be socially active mothers who want to protect their children from the stress of making funeral arrangements.
  • Almost always are the spouses that want to prearrange

Women Over 55


  • Better educated and more informed than one who wants a traditional funeral
  • Usually want value, but is not always a low cost buyer
  • More and more blue collar people are choosing cremation, emulating the more affluent, better-educated class that has been on the vanguard of the cremation trend.
  • The level of trust in funeral directors is lower, in particular, the ones they don't know.
    • especially if they recently migrated to a retirement community
    • Perceptions can be negatively shaped by what they have seen in the newspapers

Cremation Customer