L11 Culture and SWB Flashcards Preview

Subjective Well-Being > L11 Culture and SWB > Flashcards

Flashcards in L11 Culture and SWB Deck (27):
1

What is culture?

More than dress of food- deeper
Many define as basically everything about a group- norms, values, behaviors and practices, beliefs that a group shares

Fish don't notice the water- you don't notice your culture

2

America

Conformists?
Ads- being happy advice
- uniqueness vs. fitting in

3

Pen experiment

Kids choosing a pen from a collection
Asians vs. Californians
- Asians will chose the pens that are one of many
- Californians will chose the pen that is different

4

Imperialist approach to culture

Contrasting your culture with others' culture
- your culture is always "better"

5

Complete relativism

Anthropology- until recently

Franz Boas & Margaret Mead

No such thing as good or bad culture- all can only be understood from own view
No universals- each is unique
No well-being- what it is will differ completely form culture to culture

6

Cultural relativism vs. "sick" cultures

Relativistic view
- all cultures are equal, can only judge from within, can't compare them
- Boaz and Mead

Broad human needs view
- universal causes of SWB based on fulfilling universal needs
- some cultures are better than others for human flourishing
- Edgerton

7

Broad Human Needs View

Robert Edgerton
- universal causes of SWB based on fulfilling universal needs
- some cultures are better than others for human flourishing

8

Newer wave

There are many universals
- names, groups, rituals, etc

But there are also better and worse societies
- ex. Nazis
- Edgerton

9

Differences in mean levels of SWB between cultures

Income differences, r=0.80
Positive affect
- lower in Africa and Asia
Negative affect
- higher in South America and Middle East
Life satisfaction also differs by group
- multimillionaires, amish (in diff locations), maasai, sex workers, homeless, mental patients, etc
- neutral pt is 4

10

Cultural universals in the causes

Basic needs
Social support
Mastery and growth
Autonomy ? (Self-determination theory)
Purpose in life?
- weaker in poor nations

11

Differences in causes of SWB between cultures

Individualistic
- Self-esteem
- Consistency across situations
- Own feelings

Collectivistic
- Judgments of friends
- Situational norms of how to be

12

Differences in the composition of SWB between cultures

What feelings are valued?
Extreme relativism – no cross-cultural comparisons are possible, as the concepts, labels and words, etc. are completely different. “Emotions” is only a social construction.

What is well-being – even the meaning of that varies

13

Measurement challenges

Literacy and survey literacy
Word meaning, translation
Response differences – humility,
avoiding extremes, social desirability, etc.
Different patterns or composition

14

Geography

Life satisfaction
- high in Europe

Positive affect
- high in Latin America, Laos, Iceland and Canada

Low negative affect
- Asia (and Austria)

15

Asia

low positive and low negative affect

16

Latin America

high positive and high negative

17

Africa

low positive affect

18

Middle East

high negative affect, bad life satisfaction?
low positive affect?

19

Europe

high life satisfaction

eastern Europe has low LS though

20

Gross Happiness Product

Bhutan
Aspirational: Gross National Happiness
- environment and trust in government high
- but intolerance and poverty (Nepalese)
- Nepalese refugees- without a country

21

Individualism vs. Collectivism

Individualism
- focus on individual
- individual rights, choice, uniqueness, analytical

Collectivism
- focus on group
- group harmony, fitting in, conformity, holistic

Individualistic cultures are higher in SWB
- but possible income confound

22

Two forms of collectivism

1. Pacific Rim, Confucian cultures
- achieve, fit in, don't embarras
- always please father

2. Latin cultures, N. & S. America
- social support unconditional
- family commitment

23

Collectivism

Upsides
- social support
- weaker members embedded and guided (aunts and uncles)

Downsides
- little choice in occupation, mate, etc
- do what is expected, not own strengths
- frequently distrust and dislike strangers (problem with urbanization)
- external validation = materialism
- being evaluated a lot

24

Individualism

Upsides
- free to choose own course (marriage, job, where to live, etc)
- get credit for achievement

Downsides
- entitlement, narcissism, self-focus
- pride and aroused PA preferred
- wealthier, but more crime and social pathology

25

Bottom line? individualism or collectivism

When things go well, individualism is great
But- problem for "marginal people"- do better in collectivist societies
- need a little extra help an dguidance

26

Cultural congruence

- acting in accord with cultural norms and values
- consistency in personality
Ruth Benedict

Self-esteem
- thinking highly of self more important for individualists than collectivists

Extraverts are happier in an extraverted society

Religion

27

Situational consistency

be the same person
vary who you are

ex. Father, friend, partner, supervisor, etc.