L2 Measurement and Science Flashcards Preview

Subjective Well-Being > L2 Measurement and Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in L2 Measurement and Science Deck (25):
1

Science

Biggest source of human progress, underestimated
Many influential figures in science not well known
Politics gets the attention over human progress, science

2

Scientific psychology

Systematic observation and measurement, recording observations, representative sampling, replication, questioning skepticism, testing alternative explanations

3

Growth of science of SWB

Started in 1984
14,000 studies in 2014

4

Types of studies on SWB

Correlational
Qualitative
Cross-cultural
Longitudinal
Experimental
Experience-sampling

5

2 Versions of Happiness

1. Eudaimonia
2. Hedonic well-being

6

Eudaimonia

The good life
Virtue, balance, skills
Purpose, meaning, self-examination
Aristotle

7

Hedonic well-being

Pleasant life
Epicureans, Bentham

8

Defining SWB

People's evaluations of their lives, their appraisals of how good/bad their life is

9

Major Types/Categories of SWB

Life satisfaction
Positive affect
Low negative affect
Domain satisfaction- marriage, health, work
Optimism

10

Components of SWB

1. positive feelings
2. low negative feelings
3. satisfaction

11

Hedonist

High positive affect, high please, low life satisfaction

12

Intense person

High positive affect and high negative affect

13

Positive and Negative Affect

Separable, not opposites
2 dimensions
Spectrums, ranging from low to high on each dimension
Can have combinations
ex. low PA, low NA
low PA, high NA
high PA, low NA
high PA, high PA

14

Sanguine

Happy
High PA, Low NA

15

Choleric

Intense
High PA, High NA

16

Phlegmatic

Unemotional
Low PA, Low NA

17

Melancholic

Unhappy
Low PA, High NA

18

Measurement Scales

Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)- Rating agreeableness on statements (1-7)

19

SWB Scales Validity

Predict suicide- individual with high score has 1/25 of the chance to commit suicide vs. someone with a low score
Sensitive to change- moves with circumstances
Predicts behavior- health of counties
Correlates with other types of measures

Overall grade of a B

20

Measures that validate SWB scales

Self reports
Experience sampling
Informant reports
Biological accounts
- left frontal activity as predictor
Objective behavior
Memory and RT
Interviews

21

Examples of converging measures

1. Brain asymmetry- Mathieu Ricard
- left to right, positive affect, happiest brain pattern
2. Brain regions- wine tasting
- fMRI- nucleus accumbens lit up more when subjects were told they were drinking $40 wine vs. $5 wine
- subjective influence on physiological measures
- placebo effect produced real result
- self-report and brian report converge
3. informant reports- happy friends
4. memory- good vs. bad events
- list as many good/bad events in 2 mins
- list size of positive events related with happiness

22

SWB Measures Biases

Positivity bias- tendency to be positive
Social desirability- creating a good impression
Memory biases- peak/end effect

23

SWB Scales Reliability

r = 0.94

24

Variability in SWB

Happiness changes as a factor of time
but we look at mean levels of happiness
Too much extreme fluctuation- bipolar?

25

Cultural differences in measurement/ views of happiness

Contentment is incomplete for positive affect- Japan
Enjoyment- more aroused- US