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Flashcards in Midterm questions Deck (53):
1

Major components of SWB

1. Life satisfaction
2. High positive affect
3. Low negative affect

2

Phlegmatic

Low negative affect and low positive affect

3

T/F Happy people tend to show a bias in which they under-remember bad events and over-remember good ones

True, called the positivity effect

4

In almost all countries, people who have the highest incomes on average tend to be:

More happy than their poorer peers

5

Correlates with more happiness

Marriage
Strong social network
Enjoyable job
Income

NOT: kids

6

Extraverted stable

someone with high extraversion and low neuroticism

7

Spending money on ____ has been found to be associated with the most benefits in SWB

Vacations, concerts, donating to charity
NOT: sports cars

8

Hedonism

Type of happiness in which we strive to maximize pleasure

9

Gottman's positivity ratio

There needs to be 5 positives for each negative just to be at a neutral level

10

The happiest countries tend to be

Least religious

11

Demographic related with more life satisfaction

More education (moderated thru income)

12

Bottom-up approach to SWB

Happiness is explained as the sum of many small pleasurable and positive moments, such as social relationships, income, living situation, etc

13

Positivity bias

Happy people tend to be optimistic, feel a sense of control, see the good in people, and generally have a positive outlook on life

14

Carver and Scheier found that people high in optimism

recover faster from surgeries

15

Learned helplessness

Depressed people tend to feel like they have no control over their current problematic situation and negative feelings

16

Self-adaptation

Costa and McCrae found that happy and unhappy people have different coping strategies when they are confronted with a negative or stressful situation
______ is an example of a positive coping strategy

17

Situation we do not adapt to

Unemployment

18

10 basic human values

1. Achievement
2. Conformity
3. Benevolence

4. Self direction
5. Stimulation
6. Hedonism
7. Power
8. Security
9. Tradition
10. Universalism

Not: Leisure

19

Self-affirmations

Process of identifying most important values and most important role

20

Working towards goals can positively influence our well-being. Which goal characteristic has Not been helpful in boosting well-being?

Being extrinsically motivated

But: being intrinsically motivated, self-concordant, and approach oriented help

21

Example of intrinsic reason for working towards goals

To gain autonomy

22

People who focus on achieving extrinsic goals rather than intrinsic goals tend to have

Greater drug use

23

D-Love

Deficiency love, they counter-balance you
You love the person because of their dedication to you

24

Theory of Flow

Challenge and skill must balance

25

Victor Frankl lives in a Nazi camp during WWII and noted that

People would die when they lost meaning and purpose in life

26

RIASEC model

Occupational interests, tests what you enjoy

NOT: aptitudes, does not test what you're good at

27

Scale on Diener's website measures

Satisfaction with Life (SWLS)
Flourishing
Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving CIT

28

In terms of interest, what level of novelty do people seem to most often enjoy?

Medium levels of novelty

29

Sex differences in SWB

No consistent differences emerge

30

Research on the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions has found

Effects are larger for those who practice the exercises more often
Effects can persist for several months
Smaller studies have stronger effects

*** All interventions did Not have similar effects

31

Single Nucleotide Peptide (SNP)

This single gene influences a characteristic, although other genes may as well
Has to do with heritability of SWB

32

Relationship between age and SWB

It depends on the nation where one lives

33

Relationship between marriage and SWB

People who marry were happier even five years before ever marrying
There is a sharp uptick in life satisfaction at the time of the wedding
People who will eventually divorce were on average less happy even years before marrying
There are individual differences- some people are happier after marriage, and others are less happy

34

Interaction between income and education on SWB

When income is controlled, the effects of education become much smaller, but remain

35

Group with the smallest relationship between income and SWB

US broad sample, 0.12

36

Easterlin's Paradox

Rich people are happier in the rich nations, but not the poor ones???
- most findings do show that more nations increase in SWB as income rises, but there are many exceptions
- some evidence that the comparison standard increases, based on wealthiest nations, and that therefore as the world gets richer, people are barely more satisfied—they want more

37

Values for money and love

Valuing love more and money less seems associated with the most happiness

38

Strongest association with income

Life satisfaction

39

Optimal amount of happiness

80%

40

A heritability of 0.50 means that

One can explain half of the variation in one's happiness, but this does not tell us that we can only change 50%
Think of hair color, it is heritable, but we can change it

41

How frequently do people feel meaning in life?

Most people usually feel that they have meaning in life

42

Elements of meaning in life

Significance beyond self (legacy)
Coherence
Purpose

43

Review article by Diener:
Weather on happiness

Had little to no impact on SWB

44

Review article by Diener:
Global measures vs. on-line momentary measures summed over time

Global measures do somewhat better

45

Review article by Diener:
Measures used to assess SWB

Peer reports, brain activity, smiling

46

Review article by Diener:
Comparison of broad, global measure with more focused vs. narrower measures and concluded

At times certain people are higher on global measures, interpreted as a positivity effect

47

Review article by Diener:
Religion and SWB

It depends on culture
It depends on the life circumstances of respondents
- people are more religious when situations are bad

48

Review article by Diener:
Group that would be the least happy

Those open to experience living on the outskirts of the city
- social isolation

49

Declining marginal utility

Poor people get more boost from money than rich people who get that amount

50

Life satisfaction

An appraisal of one's own life

51

Positive affect

Pleasant moods and emotions

52

Adaptation

One reacts strongly to events, but then they decline in impact

53

AIM

A theory of thinking and happiness