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Flashcards in L7 - Personality Deck (50)
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What are Psychometrics?

The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits. Also called psychometry


What is the Definition of Personality?

There is no universally accepted definition
- Bratton (2010: 103) defines personality as “a relatively enduring pattern of thinking, feeling and acting that characterizes a person’s response to her or his environment”
Aspects of personality to discuss:
- Individuality;
- Routine habits;
- Consistency in response over time and situations;
- Social context;
- Changes during lifetime.


How is Reliability defined?

-when the research methods attempts are repeated and get almost the same results --> how consistent is the test


How is Validity defined?

- the research methods hit the aim of the study fairly closely --> how accurate is the test


What is the Nomothetic Approach to Personality?

- Tries to explain relationships between variables across many cases.
- Uses factor analysis
- Generalisation
- Universal principles


What is the Idiographic approach to Personality?

- Tries to explain relationships among variables within a particular case or event.
- Study of individual cases


What are some Nomothetic Approaches to Personality?

Using Traits:
- Allport
- Eysenck
- 'Big Five'

Using Types:


What are some Idiographic Approaches to Personality?

- Freud


- Phenomenological -->
- Maslow
- Rogers

- Social-cognitive/Social Learning -->
- Rotter
- Bandura


What is the difference between Type and Trait theories?

Type: distinct, discreet, discontinuous categories of personality

Trait: people differ in amounts on a single continuum


What are the Advantages to the Nomothetic approach to Personality?

- Generalisable findings
- Measures are relatively quick and easy to use
- Perceived to be ‘scientific’


What are the Disadvantages the Nomothetic approach to Personality?

- Predictions made on a single trait may not explain much of the variance in behaviour
- Reductionist - provides a superficial understanding of the person


What are the advantages the idiographic approach to Personality?

- Explains the whole person


What are the Disadvantages the idiographic approach to Personality?

- Non-Generalisable
- Analysis may be time consuming (£$£$)
- Perceived as unreliable and unscientific


How are Traits defined?

- “A dimension upon which people differ psychologically. Traits are stable over time.” (Arnold, 2010: 715)
- Approx. 18,000 words in the English dictionary that could be described as personal ‘traits’
- How to condense these into something more manageable?
- Factor analysis – a process that identifies the lowest number of factors that can reasonably cover all the relevant aspects of the topic being analysed (personality, intelligence, management competency…)


What is the 16 Personality Factor Traits test (Cattell, 1965)?

- The 16pf assessment gives a complete picture by measuring personality in both the professional and personal spheres. Its accurate predictions of behaviour and potential provide businesses with an enlightened confidence that steers staff selection and individual development. This unique depth and breadth of insight, along with more than 60 years of research and application, has earned the 16pf questionnaire international renown and respect.


What are some of the 16 personality Factors Traits?

- Emotional engagement -->
The desire to develop intimate relationships with others: outgoing versus reserved
- Liveliness-->How free and spontaneous a person expresses themselves: spontaneous versus restrained
- Vigilance --> The extent to which someone is cautious with regard to the intentions and motivations of others: suspicious versus trusting
- Openness to change -->
The extent to which a person enjoys new situations and experiences: Flexible versus connected to the familiar
- Perfectionism -->The need someone feels to trust in structure rather than leaving things to chance: controlled versus undisciplined
- Reasoning ability -->The extent to which a person is able to identify and solve numerical and verbal problems and connections: abstract versus concrete
- Dominance --> The tendency to have influence and control over others: powerful versus submissive
- Sensitivity-->The extent to which emotions and feelings of others affect a person: tender versus tough
- Abstractness -->The amount of attention that someone pays to abstract rather than concrete observations: imaginative versus practical
- Uncertainty -->A person’s tendency to self-criticism: self-critical versus self-assured
-Tension -->The extent to which a person may be frustrated by different situations: impatient versus relaxed

For simplicity’s sake, the characteristics can be reduced to five global factors: extraversion, anxiety, toughness, independence and self-control.


What are the advantages of 16 Personality Factor Traits test (Cattell, 1965)?

- Major contribution to personality research through use of factor analysis (a way of reducing the number of personality characteristics)
- Widely used in organisations
- Paved the way for the ‘Big Five’


What are the disadvantages of 16 Personality Factor Traits test (Cattell, 1965)?

- Never been entirely replicated
- Reliability of the self-report data has been questioned


What is the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Many contemporary personality psychologists believe that there are five basic dimensions of personality, often referred to as the "Big 5" personality traits. The five broad personality traits described by the theory are extroversion:
- Extroversion
- Agreeableness
- Neuroticism
- Openness
- Conscientiousness


What are the lower-order traits of Openness in the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Artistically
- sensitive,
- intellectual interests,
- reflective,
- insightful,
- curious


What are the lower-order of Conscientiousness in the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Efficient,
- reliable,
- responsible,
- ethical,
- organised,
- self-disciplined,
- scrupulous


What are the lower-order of Extroversion in the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Talkative,
- outgoing,
- candid,
- energetic,
- adventurous,
- sociable,
- assertive


What are the lower-order of Agreeableness in the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Good-natured,
- forgiving,
- generous,
- non-critical,
- warm,
- cooperative,
- trusting


What are the lower-order of Neuroticism
in the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Anxious,
- tense,
- hostile,
- excitable,
- emotionally unstable,
- impulsive.


What is the positives of the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Measures of the Big Five constructs show some consistency in interviews, self-descriptions and observations
- Simplifies personality, reduced to five factors


What is the negatives of the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Omits some domains of personality
- Skewed due to lexical approach
- Factor analysis (used to - identify the five factors) depends on interpretation – and disputes about this has led to questions about whether five is the true number of factors
- Statistically-driven, no underlying theory


What are the pros of the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Non-judgemental
- Indicates preferences (not skills)
- Well researched
- Deals with everyday behaviour of ‘normal’ people
Is not a box
- Good for training/development


What are the cons of the Big Five Model (Costa & McRae 1987)?

- Incomplete – doesn’t address emotional stability
- Construct validity – doesn’t replicate in research studies
- Reliability – 35% of people would be reclassified if they took the test five weeks from now
- Reductionist – misses much of an individuals personality.
Problematic for recruitment and selection


What have been the contributions of the nomothetic approach to personality?

- Trait theories help employers compare and contrast different candidates for a job. Can save time and money.
- Trait and Type theories help individuals to understand themselves and each other better - good for development.


What are the limitations of the Nomothetic approach to personality?

- No detail on how traits interact with each other to affect behaviour
- Predictions often made based on a single trait – other factors need to be taken into account