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Flashcards in L1 - Motivation Deck (27)
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why is the phrase most related to motivation?

- carrot and stick
-The carrot and the stick is a phrase often used about the topic of how to motivate others – to offer them inducements, rewards, ‘nice things’ – or to punish poor behaviour, threaten people.
-Positive reinforcement is one that many organisations subscribe to in principle, while the behaviour of individual managers many often veer to that of threats.


What are some general ideas about feedback?

- Produce a model / template (Bandura, 1977)
- Specific, against criteria, related to goals (Locke and Latham, 1990)
- Precise suggestions
- Immediate / close in time
- Verbal (explaining/checking)
- Annotated, written (longer lasting, considered)
- Topic knowledge, references
- Preparation
- Keep examples: spot improvements
- Think about the situation / client / reader
- Depth rather than breadth


How is motivation defined?

- Steers and Porter (1979)
- motivation is that which energises, directs and sustains behaviour


What is the importance of motivation?

- Given your ability or capability to perform, and an environment which allows you to perform (resources, management infrastructure); motivation determines whether you will do it or not (Muchinsky, 2006)
- the organisation are interest in your behaviour -->contribute to their goals (mainly financial)


What is the AMO theory (CIPD, 2002)?

- the 'heart' of strategic HRM CIPD model of motivation (CIPD, 2002)
- suggests that there are three independent work systems component that shape employee characteristics and contribute to the success of the organisation
- use as a basis for interview to compare what your employees response compares to your perception


What are the 3 systems of the AMO theory (CIPD, 2002)?

- Ability --> what do your employees experience being capable of
- Motivation --> What motivates your employees, what task do they specifically find meaning
- Opportunities --> not right equipment , not offered a job to use new skills


What is a problem with the AMO theory (CIPD, 2002)?

doesnt work if employees have high AMO but work for their own gain and don't cooperate --> affects performance


What can line managers to do help improve work performance?

- insure that a team has the ability needed --> team days, training, physical and mental health
- motivate their team --> fringe benefits set goals - feedback
- Provide opportunities to contribute --> promotion, project teams ,mentoring


What is Intrinsic Motivation?

Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated, a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external products, pressures, or rewards.
Ryan and Deci, 2000

from with in:
- Autonomy
- Mastery
- Purpose

- Personal Satisfaction
- Process orientated
- Present


What is Extrinsic Motivation?

- Extrinsic motivation is a construct that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. (Ryan and Deci, 2000)
-from outside:
- Compensation
- Punishment
- Reward

these can be non financial too e.g. --> come in later, holiday time, free transportation, letter of recognition, choosing who you work with, lunch vouchers, promotion opportunities


what is Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

- the setting of performance goals that are specific and difficult( but not impossible) and which the person feels committed is likely to improve their work performance
- this is specifically the case if the person receives feedback on progress and rewards for successful performance


What are the 4 stages of Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

- Clarity
- Challenge
- Commitment
- Feedback


Why is Clarity important in Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

When your goals are clear, you know what you're trying to achieve. You can also measure results accurately, and you know which behaviors to reward. This is why SMART is such a useful mnemonic.

However, when a goal is vague – or when you express it as a general instruction like "take initiative" – it isn't easy to measure, and it isn't motivating. You may not even know you've achieved it!


Why is Challenge important in Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

People are often motivated by challenging goals, however it's important not to set a goal that is so challenging it can't be achieved.


Why is Commitment important in Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

To be effective, your team must understand and agree to the goals – team members are more likely to "buy into" a goal if they have been involved in setting it.

This doesn't mean that you have to negotiate every goal with your team members and secure their approval. They're likely to commit to it as long as they believe that the goal is achievable, it is consistent with the company's ambitions, and the person assigning it is credible.


Why is Feedback important in Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

In addition to selecting the right goals, you should also listen to feedback, so that you can gauge how well you and your team are progressing.

Feedback gives you the opportunity to clarify people's expectations and adjust the difficulty of their goals.

Keep in mind that feedback doesn't have to come from other people. You can check how well you're doing by simply measuring your own progress.


What are the advantages to Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

- Setting a goal is designed to motivate an employee and help increase performance, according to the human resources department website at Brown University in the section titled "Performance - Goal Setting" located in the "Job, Pay & Performance" section.
- When the employee is involved in the goal setting process, he takes a personal interest in achieving that goal. The emotional involvement becomes a strong motivator and can help the employee reach his goals and realize greater success within the organization.
- at setting goals helps an employee to better focus on the elements that create success. To achieve a goal, you first must state your desire to reach the accomplishment. Once the goal is stated, a process can be created that the employee will follow to reach it. With a list of goals and the procedures necessary to reach them, an employee can better focus his efforts on achieving the things that will bring success to his career and his company.goals not only help the employee chart her progress, it also helps management measure development.
- Growth of workforce --> A clearly defined set of goals can be used during an employee evaluation to determine how well the employee performed against those goals, and what changes need to be made to improve reaching goals in the future.


What are the disadvantages of Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham, 1990)?

- In 1968 Dr. Edwin Locke released a study titled "Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives". In his theory Locke explains that setting goals that are too vague can lead to poor performance compared to specific and challenging goals. Goals that are not properly crafted can become demotivating. If the goal seems too easy or not specific enough, then the employee is not motivated to achieve it.
- Although goal setting theory is well specified and uses well defined concepts successful implementation in the workplace still requires skill and sensitivity
- Large workforce --> hard to do it specific for every person


What is Self-Determination Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000)?

- Self-determination theory suggests that people are motivated to grow and change by innate psychological needs. The theory identifies three key psychological needs that are believed to be both innate and universal:
- Competence --> another need concerns our achievements, knowledge, and skills; people have a need to build their competence and develop mastery over tasks that are important to them.
-Autonomy --> people have a need to feel that they are the masters of their own destiny and that they have at least some control over their lives; most importantly, people have a need to feel that they are in control of their own behavior.
- Relatedness --> people need to have a sense of belonging and connectedness with others; each of us needs other people to some degree
-Deci and Ryan suggest that when people experience these three things, they become self-determined. These three elements also enable people to be intrinsically/autonomously motivated to pursue the things that interest them.


What does the Self Determination Theory lead to (Ryan and Deci, 2000)?

- lead to Volition, Motivation and Engagement
- if these are fostered will result in Enhanced performance, Persistence and Creativity


What are the advantages of Self Determination Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000)?

- The benefit of this theory is that it is individually guided by the personal desires of those who seek personal improvement.


What are the disadvantages of Self Determination Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000)?

- Unfortunately, the theory fails to provide any guidance on how to achieve the three needs in order to become personally motivated
- Empirical Criticism --> Why only three needs, Maslow express 5 in Hierarchy of Needs and Steven Reiss's 16 basic desire needs
- need more cross-cultural studies if we want to test the hypothesis , that there are exactly three universal, innate psychological needs. --> doesnt look at cultural/personal interpretations of rewards --> some see money as job well done
- difference between intrinsic motivation and achievement motivation --> liking the task activity vs. striving to well
- dont need just intrinsic motivation its does to have intrinsic. extrinsic and achievement motivation for the best result --> as no one is constantly intrinsically motivated
- people dont always have an innate tendency to preserve and fulfill their potential to reach their goal


How do you implement the basics of Motivation?

- Intrinsic motivation: learn -what people care about, design tasks and jobs that are interesting and intrinsically rewarding
- Extrinsic motivation: learn what extrinsic rewards people want
- AMO: provide opportunities for people to learn and enhance their abilities; provide opportunities to apply skills


How do you implement Need/Content Theories?

- Ask people what their needs are
- Satisfy lower-level needs first
- Expect people’s needs to change
- Meet higher-level needs by increasing focus on intrinsic motivation


How do you implement Process Theories?

-Goal-setting: agree specific, challenging goals and provide goal-related feedback
- Self-determination theory: build and communicate competence; build teams; encourage decision-making


How is a process theory defined?

- Whereas the content theories concentrate on the question of 'what' motivates, the process theories address more the issues relating to how the process works and sustains itself over time, such as factors that determine the degree of effort, the continuation of effort, the modification of effort, etc.