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What is Schein’s (1980) definition of a Group?

A group is a number of people who:
- Interact with each other
- Are psychologically aware of each other
- Perceive themselves aware of each other
- Or perceive themselves to be a group


What are other Characteristics of a Group?

- Rely on each other because of the task they perform --> interdependent
- Embedded in one or more social system (such an organisation they work in)
- Perform tasks that affect others such has co-workers or customers (Guzzo and Dickson. 1997:308)


What is Brill’s (1976) definition of ‘a team’?

A team is a group of people:
- Each of whom possesses expertise
- Each of whom is responsible for making individual decisions
- Who together hold a common purpose
- Who meet together to communicate, collaborate and consolidate knowledge
- From which plans are made, action determined, and future decision influenced


What are other Characteristics of a Group?

- Higher independency --> Team members are dependent upon each other to get things done and the team member are not simply acting under the direction of a supervisor
-Membership Boundaries --> Team members know who part of the team is
- Authority --> defined and bounded authority, to be managed without excess interference from outside teams --> autonomy and empowerment
- Stability --> a relatively stable membership for the lifetime of the team


How does Working in a Team/Group affect the Production of New Ideas?

The production of new ideas tends to be greater when individuals brainstorm alone with information about other ideas, rather than in the physical present of each other:
- Free Riding
- Evaluation Comprehension --> afraid of what people may think of anyone so don’t say anything
- Production Blocking --> only one person can talk about their ideas --> other people have to listen not develop their ideas


What are the Different Areas could make up an Effective Team?

- Direction
- Processes
- Atmosphere
- Structure/Resources
- Leadership


How does Direction help make a Team Effective?

- The team is clear about its values, vision, mission, strategies, goals, and priorities.
- These are cooperatively structured by the entire team which results in a high degree of individual focus and commitment.
- The direction is felt to require stretching but to be achievable.
- Energy is mainly devoted to the achievement of results.


How does Processes help make a Team Effective?

- The team manager uses appropriate and flexible leadership styles to develop a team approach and allocates time to improving teamwork.
- Individuals other than the manager are given the opportunity to exercise leadership when their skills are appropriate to the situation facing the team.
- Participation and leadership are distributed among team members.
- The leader represents the team fairly and accurately to the rest of the organization and both monitors and influences the other four key areas in the model.


How does Atmosphere help make a Team Effective?

- The team has developed an atmosphere in which people feel supported, accepted, included, trusted, and liked.
- Cohesion is maintained by this caring atmosphere, and feedback is both encouraged and listened to by team members.
- As a result, team members feel a sense of belonging and synergistic cohesiveness.


How does Structure/Resources help make a Team Effective?

- The amount of structure and the number of procedures is viewed as appropriate by team members.
- Roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and differentiated among team members.
- Job design is changed so that the best possible match between individual goals and the team's goals can be achieved.
- Administrative procedures support a team approach.


How is Behaviour defined?

the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others.


What are Behavioural Tests?

A method used in the field of psychology to observe, describe, explain, predict and sometimes correct behaviour
- While personality may not change substantially, behaviour is believed to change more easily
- Many behaviour tests will involve observation from other e.g. degree feedback
Others are self-reported e.g. Belbin’s Team Role


How is Personality Defined?

the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character.


What are Psychometric Tests?

Objective measurement of skill and knowledge abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement


What are Psychometric Tools?

- Questionnaires about tendencies and preferences --> Self- reported
- Tested widely --> for reliability and validity
- Answers processed to produce graph
- Compares the individual’s results with results from a relevant sample
- Simplistic interpretation by untrained personnel is misleading
- Requires someone who is trained and experience in reading profiles


How do Businesses use Psychometrics?

Recruitment and Selection (but not MBTI) including:
-Graduate recruitment
-Internal promotion

Team Development
Career Development
Improving communication coaching


What are some Examples Tests and Questionnaires for Team Development?

- Psychometric --> MBTI
- Behaviour Test --> Belbin, Team Effectiveness Questionnaire



What is the MBTI?

- The Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator is a self-report inventory designed to identify a person's personality type, strengths, and preferences.
- Preferences are not ability --> MBTI preference do not tell you what you can and can’t do
There are no better or worse types --> all types have potential
- People are the best judge of their own type --> hence the MBTI questionnaire is an indicator, not a test


What are some Ethics associated with the MBTI?

- The MBTI questionnaire should only be used for development
- The MBTI questionnaire cannot be used for selection, because it tells you nothing about a person’s skills and abilities
- People should only be asked to share their MBTI type if they feel comfortable doing so – everyone owns their data and can choose to share it or not as they wish


What are the 4 Dimensions of type of the MBTI?

- Extraversion and Introversion
- Sensing and iNtuition
- Thinking and Feeling
- Judging and Perceiving


What do Extroverted people prefer?

- To get energy for the outer environment of people and experiences
- Focus energy and attention outwards in action


What do Introverted people prefer?

- To get energy from the inner environment of reflection and thoughts
- Focus energy and attention inwards in reflection


How does Extraversion compare to Introversion?

- Where you prefer to get and focus your ‘energy’ or attention
- Do-think-do vs. think-do-think
- Action vs. Reflection
- Talk things through vs. Think things through
- Expressive vs. Contained
- Interaction vs. Concentration
- Breadth of interest vs. Depth of interest


What do Sensing people prefer?

- Information coming from the give sense
- Focus of what is real
- Value practical applications


What do Intuition people prefer?

- Information coming from association --> the big picture
- Focus on what might be
- Value imagination and insight


How does Sensing compare to Intuition?

- What kind of information you prefer to gather and trust
- Facts vs. Ideas
- Specifics vs. Big Picture
- Realistic vs. Imaginative
- Here and now vs. Anticipating the future
- Practical vs. Theoretical
- Observant vs. Conceptual


What do Thinking people prefer?

- To make decisions on the basis of logic and objectivity
- Quick to see errors and give a critique
- Step out of situations in order to analyse dispassionately


What do Feeling people prefer?

- Prefer to make decisions on the basis of values and personal convictions
- Quick to show appreciation and find common ground
- Step into situations to weigh human values and motives


How does Thinking compare to Feeling?

- What process you prefer to use in coming to decisions?
- Guided by cause and effect reasoning vs. Guided by personal values
- Logical Analysis vs. Understand others’ point of view
- Seek objective truth vs. Seek harmony
- Impersonal criteria vs. Personal circumstances
- Critique vs. Praise
- Focus on task vs. Focus on Relationship


What do Judging people prefer?

- To live in a planned and organised manner
- Enjoy coming to closure an being decisive
- Avoid stressful last-minutes rushes