Flashcards in L6 - Intelligence Deck (39)
What is Haidt's metaphor for intelligence?
- Kahneman refers to a conflict in our intelligence between a rapid, emotional first system of thought and a second slower, more rational system.
- the rider is the second system, the elephant is the first. The rider calculates the course the two should follow, but while the rider is doing the calculations, the elephant may see a mouse, or perhaps a familiar trail, and go the other way.
What is Fluid Intelligence (Cattell, 1963)?
Solve new problems
Use logic in new situations
- Using a complicated subway system in a new city is a good example of how you might need to use fluid intelligence. The first time you use the subway, you have to figure out the names of the stops you need, which train will take you there, if you need to transfer in the middle, and so on.
- This type of intelligence is sort of like 'street smarts,' where you need to figure things out that moment and adapt to your situation.
- One way you can think of fluid intelligence is that you'll use it slightly differently each time you're in a new situation, so it's flexible and adaptive - like water in its fluid form.
What is Crystallized Intelligence (Catell, 1963)?
- Crystallized intelligence is defined as the ability to use learned knowledge and experience. When you're taking a class at school, you use crystallized intelligence all the time. When you're learning a new language, you memorize the new vocabulary words and increase your vocabulary over time.
- You also learn the theory behind solving algebraic equations, or how to do long division, or the general rules of grammar when using a sentence.
Crystallized intelligence is like water as it turns into ice, or a solid form. Over time it gets more and more stable, like a crystal.
- When you're learning a new task you'll usually need to start with fluid intelligence, but once that task is learned, you can probably rely on your crystallized intelligence. For example, if you grew up learning English as your first language, you might have trouble learning a language with different grammatical patterns or concepts, like nouns in Spanish being 'masculine' or 'feminine.'
- Making this adaptation will require your brain to be a little flexible as you think about the new ideas. However, once you get the basics of the new language down, you can add to your knowledge and vocabulary by memorising words, which relies on crystallized intelligence.
We need both forms of intelligence. - crystallized and fluid.
What social, environmental and economic factors might impact positively on intelligence?
There are several ways that our intelligence can be affected:
- Social – the amount and kind of human contact we have when growing up – and now at work and socially
- Environmental – the intake of toxins, caffeine, alcohol, other drugs – as well as the impact of light, comfort, stress (and it’s biochemical reactions)
- Economic – the income of our families, when we are children, and currently will impact on the first two factors, and will in large part determine the access we gain to various learning opportunities and opportunities for stimulating our brains.
Be careful of the word ‘determine’. This suggests that there is a simple cause-and-effect relationship between, for example, genes and intelligence. The relationship is not as simple as that.
What are some difference in Intelligence?
- Brooks-Gunn et al. (1996) studied IQ score differences between black and white children; also measuring home environment, birth weight, and financial situation.
- Black children's IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children
- Maternal education influences this difference.
People in poverty are less likely to have a degree from higher education.
The learning experience in the home of the black children was very different or was not as valued as the experience in white children’s homes.
- Adjustments for ethnic differences in poverty reduced the ethnic differential by 52%. Adjustments for maternal education and whether the head of household was female did not reduce the ethnic difference further. However, differences in home environment reduced the ethnic differential by an additional 28%.
- Adjustments for economic and social differences in the lives of black and white children all but eliminate differences in the IQ scores between these two groups.
Why do definition matter?
How we ‘construct’ an idea in our minds, impacts on:
1. How we think about it
2. What we measure and
3. How/if we attempt to develop it
a) “intelligence is reacting flexibly to new situations”
b)“intelligence is solving problems”
c) “intelligence is about being able to learn”
What is the difference between Conceptual and Operational definitions?
- conceptual definition --> is about saying what we mean
- Operational definition --> Is about saying how we will measure
You need to have an operational definition to be able to research a concept – to compare, measure, etc This is important both for research but also when agreeing contracts – how will we measure what we are delivering?
What is an example of Conceptual and Operational definitions?
We might agree that a park is beautiful. The concept of ‘beautiful’ in this context might be understood –
Conceptual definition of a ‘beautiful park’ – might be:
A green space with flowers and trees, open to the public.
So how would you measure a park’s beauty?
Quantity of grass/trees/ flowers?
Number of hours it is open to the public? Who is the ’public’?
What is a definition of "Intelligence is reacting flexibly to new situations"?
“Ability to adapt to a variety of situations both old and new…” (Phares, 1987)
- In recruitment and selection, how might we measure flexible reactions to new situations?
- How might we develop this flexibility?
What is a definition of “Intelligence is solving problems”?
An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings.” (Gardner,1983)
- In recruitment and selection, how might we measure problem-solving ability?
- How might we develop people’s problem-solving abilities?
What is a definition of ‘Intelligence is about being able to learn’?
“the capacity of individuals to process information and use the information to behave effectively (including the ability to learn from experience)” (Arnold, 2010)
- In recruitment and selection, how might we measure ability to learn?
- How might we develop people’s ability to learn?
What are some different Hierarchical Models of Intelligence?
- Primary Mental Abilities (Thurstone, 1938)
- Fluid and crystallised intelligence (Cattell, 1963)
- Three stratum theory (Carroll, 1993)
- any theory of intelligence postulating that the abilities constituting intelligence are arranged in a series of levels (of a hierarchy) ranging from general to specific. Many of these theories are based on recognizing three levels of factors
What is Primary Mental Ability (Thurstone, 1938)?
- Psychologist Louis L.Thurstone (1887–1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different primary mental abilities. The abilities that he described include:
1. Verbal comprehension
2. Verbal fluency
3. Inductive reasoning
4. Spatial visualization
7. Perceptual speed
What is the Three Stratum model (Carroll, 1993)?
The three-stratum theory is derived primarily from Spearman's (1927) model of general intelligence and Horn & Cattell's (1966) theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. His factor analyses were largely consistent with the Horn-Cattell model except that Carroll believed that general intelligence was a meaningful construct.
- This model suggests that intelligence is best conceptualized in a hierarchy of three strata.
- Stratum III (general intelligence): g factor, accounts for the correlations among the broad abilities at Stratum II.
- Stratum II (broad abilities): 8 broad abilities—fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, and processing speed.
- Stratum I (specific level): more specific factors under the stratum II.
What are Critiques of Hierarchical Models?
Crystallised and Fluid Intelligence (gf-gc) (Cattell, 1963) and the Three Stratum model (Carroll, 1993) both:
- Bring together Spearman’s and Thurstone’s work
- Based on a large amount of empirical evidence.
- Explain and predict performance on mental tests over time
- Gf-gc model predicts intellectual development across the life span
- Show that g is controversial and much debated – but not clear exactly what g represents – more research needed
What are Complex Systems Model of Intelligence and what are some different theories?
A complex system is any system featuring a large number of interacting components (agents, processes, etc.) whose aggregate activity is nonlinear (not derivable from the summations of the activity of individual components) and typically exhibits hierarchical self-organization under selective pressures. This definition applies to systems from a wide array of scientific disciplines.
- Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg, 1985)
- Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983)
- Bioecological Theory (Ceci, 1996)
What is the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg, 1985)?
-The triarchic theory of intelligence was formulated by Robert Sternberg in the 1980s. The theory attempts to understand the human intelligence in terms of distinct components rather than a single ability.
- The tri-archic theory by Sternberg categorized intelligence into three different aspects.
- Componential – Analytic skills
Experiential – Creativity
Practical – Contextual skills
What are some advantages of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg, 1985)?
A person who has more strength in one component, can thrive more than others.
What are the disadvantages of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg, 1985)?
can be too broad as there is only 3 key components and can be said to be more of a social skill rather than a form of intelligence.
What is Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983)?
This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first outlined his theory in his 1983 book "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences," where he suggested that all people have different kinds of "intelligences." Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of a ninth known as "existentialist intelligence."
In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner theorizes that people do not have just an intellectual capacity, but have many kinds of intelligence, including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual, and linguistic intelligences.
While a person might be particularly strong in a specific area, such as musical intelligence, he or she most likely possesses a range of abilities. For example, an individual might be strong in verbal, musical, and naturalistic intelligence.
What are the 8 different intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983)?
What are some Criticisms of Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983)?
These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad and that his eight different "intelligences" simply represent talents, personality traits, and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research.
Despite this, the theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophies and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom.
What is Bioecological Theory (Ceci, 1996)?
Intelligence has different meanings in different contexts: what is intelligent behaviour in one culture is sometimes thought to be stupid in other cultures
Level 1: context that the person lives in
Level 2: experiential context (foundation for Learning and Development)
Level 3: situational context – daily activities
What are Critiques of the complex system models of intelligence?
All three models:
- Emphasise the range, flexibility and complexity of intelligent behaviour
- Show how mental capacities develop and change over time and across situations
- Incorporate biological, psychometric, information-processing and contextual approaches
- Need more depth to establish validity and utility
Difficult to test
How is emotional Intelligence defined?
the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically.
What is the Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995)?
The Five Component of Emotional Intelligence
- Social Awareness
- Relationship Management
- Internal Motivation
What comes under the Self Awareness category of Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995)?
- The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others. Hallmarks* of self-awareness include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humor. Self-awareness depend on one's ability to monitor one's own emotion state and to correctly identify and name one's emotions.
What comes under the Social Awareness category of Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995)?
- The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Hallmarks include expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to clients and customers. (In an educational context, empathy is often thought to include, or lead to, sympathy, which implies concern, or care or a wish to soften negative emotions or experiences in others.) See also Mirror Neurons.
- It is important to note that empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy can be 'used' for compassionate or cruel behavior. Serial killers who marry and kill many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills!
- Service Orientation
- Organisational Awareness
What comes under the Self-Management category of Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995)?
- The ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.
- Achievement Drive
What comes under the Relationship Management category of Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995)?
- Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an ability to find common ground and build rapport. Hallmarks of social skills include effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading teams.
- Inspirational leadership
- Developing Others
- Change Catalyst
- Conflict Management
- Building Bonds
What comes under the the internal motivation category of Emotional Intelligence: Goleman (1995)?
A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money and status -which are external rewards, - such as an inner vision of what is important in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being immersed in an activity. A propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence. Hallmarks include a strong drive to achieve, optimism even in the face of failure, and organizational commitment.
What is the difference between Self-awareness and Self-Knowledge?
- Self-awareness – gained through being self-aware in the moment
- Self-knowledge – gained through understanding how others view us
What is Mindfulness Practice?
Mindfulness means maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, through a gentle, nurturing lens.
How is Self-Awareness related to Intelligence?
- To pay attention to the present
- To recognise what is in the present, rather than react to things based on what has happened in the past.
- To be alert to what is happening within our own minds.
How is Self-Awareness relevance in Business?
- Increased self-awareness leads to improved performance.
- Comparing self- and other-ratings, recipients are “forced into a cognitive process of reflection that ultimately results in greater levels of awareness of their own actions and the consequences those actions have on others across various levels in and out of the organisation” --> (Church and Bracken, 1997)
What are the implications of intelligence for organisations?
How to engage people’s intelligence in order to increase:
- Their skills and knowledge
- Team innovation, creativity and problem-solving
- Their communication and training of others
How can we apply the Mulitply Intelligence theory in business?
Workers / students who understand their own balance of multiple intelligences can:
- Better manage their own learning
- Learn to value their individual strengths
Managers / teachers who apply M.I. theory can:
- Provide more opportunities for others to cultivate their talents and improve their weaknesses
- Engage people with learning content in ways that make sense to them
What are some Practical Applications of intelligence theory?
- Recruitment and Selection: testing mental ability, emotional intelligence – to predict performance
- Learning and Development: designing learning activities that take account of ideas about intelligence
- Career planning: understanding development of intelligence during life