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How do you give feedback that suits different MBTI profiles?

- For ‘E’: be prepared for them to need to talk about the feedback
- For ‘I’: give them time with the feedback before talking
- For ‘S’: give specific
examples, linked to criteria
- For ‘N’: focus on overall impact, identify themes, patterns
- For ‘T’: explain cause and effect, use brief and concise language, link carefully to the brief
- For ‘F’: soften critical remarks, find positive, offer alternative solutions
- For ‘J’: appreciate conciseness and focus on delivering to plan, identify possible steps / stages of improvement between now and the exam, perhaps encourage more exploration?
- For ‘P’: appreciate exploration, perhaps encourage development of more structured planning?


What are different factors that can affect behaviour?

- Willpower and motivation
- family
- friends
- education
- knowledge and skills
- Culture
- Financial situation
- Beliefs
- Fear


How is Attitude defined?

- a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related (Allport 1935, p.810))


What is the Tripartite model of Attitude (Breckler, 1984)?

-(Breckler, 1984)
-model that says that attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components:
- Affective -->his involves a person’s feelings / emotions about the attitude object --> how a workers feels about their job or organisation
- Behavioural (or conative) --> the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave --> How a worker is predisposed to behave in his or her job or organisation
- Congnitive --> : this involves a person’s belief / knowledge about an attitude object --> What a worker believes to be true about his or her job or organisation

This leads to work attitudes --> Collections of feelings, beliefs, and predispositions to behave in one’s job and organisation


why might attitudes matter to organisations?

It's easier to train aptitude than attitude. --> When people have the right attitude they are both motivated and adaptable which makes them more open to learning new skills. With the right attitude and enough effort most new skills can be mastered quickly. Whereas improving attitude is often about changing behaviors which is always much more difficult to do, as people need to want to change and without the right attitude this is unlikely to happen.
- Attitude can impact overall performance.
- The right attitude can overcome obstacles. -->
We've all heard the saying "when the going gets tough, the tough get going." Well if it were about having the right aptitude then saying would be 'when the going gets tough, the smart get going'. But it's not.


How can Attitudes be changed through Persuasion?

- Communicator credibility: expertness and trustworthiness
- Communicator attractiveness --> likeability
- One-sided versus two-sided arguments -->more persuasive
- Use of fear --> only works for short-term
- Social pressures in persuasion
- Events before the persuasive message
- Central versus peripheral routes to persuasion --> don't go straight to the point - go around around edge


What is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988)?

(Ajzen, 1988)
- The theory was intended to explain all behaviors over which people have the ability to exert self-control.
- The key component to this model is behavioral intent; behavioral intentions are influenced by the attitude about the likelihood that the behavior will have the expected outcome and the subjective evaluation of the risks and benefits of that outcome.


What does the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) tell us?

- The TPB states that behavioral achievement depends on both motivation (intention) and ability (behavioral control). It distinguishes between three types of beliefs - behavioral, normative, and control.
Attitudes -->This refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior of interest. It entails a consideration of the outcomes of performing the behavior. e.g.smoking is bad for you. costs alot of money, difficult to stop
-Subjective norms --> This refers to the belief about whether most people approve or disapprove of the behavior. It relates to a person's beliefs about whether peers and people of importance to the person think he or she should engage in the behavior. e.g. I would be the only smoker in my peer group, my friends dont like smoking
- Perceived behavioral control --> This refers to a person's perception of the ease or difficulty of performing the behavior of interest. Perceived behavioral control varies across situations and actions, which results in a person having varying perceptions of behavioral control depending on the situation e.g. im not sure i could stop smoking when i want to

- This all leads to your behavioural intentions which lead to actual behaviour


What are some limitations of What does the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) tell us?

- It assumes the person has acquired the opportunities and resources to be successful in performing the desired behavior, regardless of the intention.
- It does not account for other variables that factor into behavioral intention and motivation, such as fear, threat, mood, or past experience.
- While it does consider normative influences, it still does not take into account environmental or economic factors that may influence a person's intention to perform a behavior.
- It assumes that behavior is the result of a linear decision-making process, and does not consider that it can change over time.
- While the added construct of perceived behavioral control was an important addition to the theory, it doesn't say anything about actual control over behavior.
- The time frame between "intent" and "behavioral action" is not addressed by the theory.
- However, Ajzen (1985) was not arguing that human actions are based on rational thought – his model is just a simplification of some of the influences.


How was Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) applied by the government to tackle smokers?

Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the government attempts to influence:
- Our attitudes to smoking
- Positive about non-smokers
- Negative about smokers
- Our perception of what is ‘the norm’, what regular other people do
- Our belief that we CAN control our behaviour


What are the two types of conditioning?

Classical conditioning -->automatic response
Operant conditioning --> learned and reinforced response

Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement.


What is the Operant Conditioning Theory (Skinner, 1938)?

- The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment
- can split into Reinforcement ( increases Behaviour) and Punishment (decrease behaviour)


What comes under the Reinforcement section of the Operant Conditioning Theory (Skinner, 1938)?

- Positive --> Add positive (appetitive) stimulus e.g. a treat
- Negative --> can be split into Escape and Active Avoidance
- Escape --> Remove noxious stimuli following correct behaviour e.g. putting cream on a skin rash to remove pain
- Active Avoidance --> Correct behaviour avoids noxious stimulus e.g. handling work in on time to avoid reprimand


What comes under the Punishment section of the Operant Conditioning Theory (Skinner, 1938)?

- Positive --> Add noxious stimulus, follow behaviour e.g. reprimand person for late submission of work
- Negative --> Remove positive stimulus following incorrect behaviour e.g. take away work privileges


What is the Evaluation of the Operant Conditioning Theory (Skinner, 1938)?

- Focuses on behaviour – and can work if the target behaviour is completely clear. Often used in areas such as Health & Safety
- Can be expensive to maintain. If the target behaviour is only achieved through a stimulus – reward/punishment, it is likely to stop if the reward/punishment disappears
- Does not engage the individual in any thought-through response. Is not ‘owned’ by the individual


What is Organisational Behaviour Modification (Luthans and Kreitner, 1975)?

- based on operant condition it is a way to change behaviours of employees such as : Reducing employee lateness, Improving safety, Improving productivity, Improving customer service:


What are the 5 steps of Organisational Behaviour Modification (Luthans and Kreitner, 1975)?

1. Identify the observable objective measureable behaviours relevant to the desired organisational performance
2. Measure the frequency with which those behaviours occur under normal conditions --> Baseline performance data
3. Determine the causes of the behaviour, factors which reinforce this behaviour and consequences of the behaviour
4. Develop an intervention strategy to increase desired behaviour and decrease undesired behaviour, through use of operant conditioning, reinforcement… punishment
5. Measure and evaluate systematically (using baseline data) the extent of behaviour change i.e. the improvement in performance


What is Social Learn Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

- Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling
-In social learning theory, Albert Bandura (1977) agrees with the behaviorist learning theories of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. However, he adds two important ideas:
1- Mediating processes occur between stimuli & responses.
2-Behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning.


How can you apply Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

- Start with a ‘model’ – an example of what the manager / trainer wants the other person / people to behave like / achieve. then go through the 4 steps:
- Attention
- Retention
- Reproduction
- Motivation


What happen during the Attention process of Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

A focus on the stimuli to ensure that they are distinctive (stick out from other examples); have affective valenoce (have some value for the learner in terms of emotional response); have appropriate levels of complexity to engage the learner; have functional value (the learner can see some purpose in paying attention).


What happen during the Retention process of Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

This is where the learner analyses what they are observing and applies some kind of coding to it, or ‘rules’ about what is good/ not so good to do.
- The learner then needs to organise their perceptions (remember the perceptions lecture) and then rehearse their own version of the observed behaviour.
- Actually ‘doing’ it is important in the process of learning. Hearing about it/ observing is not enough. To retain the ideas – practice is important – both physical (actually writing an essay) as well as thinking about it.


What happen during the Reproduction process of Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

often labelled as motor reproduction:
- The learner has to have the physical capabilities to reproduce the behaviour – this might mean the capability to adapt to carry out the behaviour in a slightly different way if the individual has specific physical needs. - Reproduction is fine-turned through feedback – from the environment. For example, learning not to touch something on top of a cooker – the feedback is through the pain in our hand when touching it. Self-observation plays an important role here. The individual can determine for themselves whether or not the actual behaviour matches their mental representation of it (how they coded it during the retention phase).


What happen during Motivation process of Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

- Reinforcement is not part of the learning process. But reinforcement does impact on the performance of behaviours.
- Motivation is needed for the person to apply their learning and carry out the observed behaviour(s).
- Remember that according to Steers and Porter (1979), motivation is that which energises, directs and sustains behaviour. So – the individual needs to feel its worth bothering to enact the behaviour; they need a purpose; and they need some way that will encourage them to continue.


What are some Critiques of Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1971)?

- Bandura's theory was criticized by biological theorists, who argued it ignores biological states and autonomic nervous system responses. It is a fact that some behaviors and responses are not only learned but partly inherited.

- The Bobo doll experiment was also criticized for being too artificial) and that if an adult was acting violently to a child, other children would not repeat the behavior; or that children were manipulated into repeating the aggressive behavior; or that children were only playing rather then aggressing the doll.

- Bandura's ideas on violent behavior acquisition through media were also subjected to criticisms. Some authors have found that watching television actually reduces the amount of aggressive behavior since children can relate themselves with characters involved in an violent act and release their violent thoughts) (the Catharsis effect).


What was the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986)?

- started as the Social Learning Theory (SLT) in the 1960s by Albert Bandura. It developed into the SCT in 1986 and posits that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior.
- The unique feature of SCT is the emphasis on social influence and its emphasis on external and internal social reinforcement. SCT considers the unique way in which individuals acquire and maintain behavior, while also considering the social environment in which individuals perform the behavior.
- The theory takes into account a person's past experiences, which factor into whether behavioral action will occur. These past experiences influences reinforcements, expectations, and expectancies, all of which shape whether a person will engage in a specific behavior and the reasons why a person engages in that behavior.


What are the 6 Assumption of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986)?

The goal of SCT is to explain how people regulate their behavior through control and reinforcement to achieve goal-directed behavior that can be maintained over time. The first five constructs were developed as part of the SLT; the construct of self-efficacy was added when the theory evolved into SCT.:
1- Reciprocal Determinism
2- Behavioural Capability
3- Observational Learning
4- Reinforcements
5- Expectations
6- Self-efficacy


What is Reciprocal Determinism as a construct of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986)?

This is the central concept of SCT. This refers to the dynamic and reciprocal interaction of person (individual with a set of learned experiences), environment (external social context), and behavior (responses to stimuli to achieve goals)


What is Behavioural Capability as a construct of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986)?

This refers to a person's actual ability to perform a behavior through essential knowledge and skills. In order to successfully perform a behavior, a person must know what to do and how to do it. People learn from the consequences of their behavior, which also affects the environment in which they live.


What is Observational Learning as a construct of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986)?

This asserts that people can witness and observe a behavior conducted by others, and then reproduce those actions. This is often exhibited through "modeling" of behaviors. If individuals see successful demonstration of a behavior, they can also complete the behavior successfully.


What is Reinforcements as a construct of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986)?

This refers to the internal or external responses to a person's behavior that affect the likelihood of continuing or discontinuing the behavior. Reinforcements can be self-initiated or in the environment, and reinforcements can be positive or negative. This is the construct of SCT that most closely ties to the reciprocal relationship between behavior and environment.