L9- 12: Transcription and Translation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L9- 12: Transcription and Translation Deck (26)
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1

what is promotor and terminator

when RNA polymerase makes stand to and from

2

what are the 4 requirements of transcription (RNA synthesis)

1. four nucleoside 5' triphosphate: 5'ATP, 5'GTP ect
2. Mg 2+
3. DNA template (no primer)
4. RNA polymerase (RNAP)

3

Differences between RNA and DNA polymerase

- RNA= no primer, no helicase to unwind, higher error rate

4

sims between RNA and DNA polymerase

- forms phosphodiester bonds b/w nicleosides
- energy stored in bonds

5

what a cistron

in prokaryotic mRNA
- one poly peptide chain DNA segment

6

process b/w messenger RNA + pro mrna

genes with exons and introns, introns removed

7

function of mRNA

copy of DNA

8

function of rRNA

part of ribosome

9

function of tRNA

adapter b/w mrna and aa, aligns aa with triplet on MRNA

10

function of small RNA

pre-mrna splicing, transport proteins to ER

11

function of 5' end capping and 3' end polyadenylation

enables export from nucleus + binding of ribosome

12

where is the anti codon found

t RNA

13

what enables attachment of codon/anticodon

aminoacyl-trna synthetases

14

what are the two adapters used to translate genetic code

aminoacyl-trna synthetases= couples aa with tRNA
tRNA = anticodon forms base pair with codon of mRNA

15

What the synthesise example for leucine (aa)

leycyl-trna synthetases

16

what term describes tRNA when aa attached and what the term of the overall structure

charged or acylated

amino acyl tRNA

17

Describe the two sub units of ribosomes

1- small subuinit= matches tRNA to codon on mRNA
2- Large subunit= catalyses formation of peptide bonds to link aa together

18

what are the ribosome binding sites

= 1 binding site for mRNA and 3 for tRNA

19

what are the 3 tRNA binding sites on a ribosome

(A) aminoacyl- tRNA (new trna enters)
(P) peptide trna (trna attached to polypeptide chain
(E) exit= empty trna exists

20

explain elongation of polypeptide steps

1. aminoacyl trna binds to A site, spent trna leaves E site
2. new peptide bond formed (uses ATP)
3. large subunits more to next codon
4. small subunit moves to next= A site now empty for next aminoacyl trna

21

what are the 3 requirements for translation

mrna containing coding region
trna carrying amino acids
ribosomes (rrna and proteins)

22

3 phases of protein synthesis

initiation (mrna, ribosome, initiating trna)
elongation (peptide bonds + movement)
termination- dissociation of ribosomes and peptides

23

how many potential reading frames are there

3

24

How are ribosomes ribozymes

perform condensation at c terminal of aa at p site and n terminal of aa at a site

25

explain termination of translation

initiated by stop codons
releasing factors bind to stop codon that reaches A on ribosome
- alters activity + hydrolysis effect and releases peptide

26

what does imitation require

met-trna= binds elongation co factors