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Flashcards in L2-5 Deck (39)
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1

Word origin: prokaryotes

before nucleus

2

Word origin: eukaryotes

truly (have nucleus)

3

two types of prokaryotes and their environments

eubacteria- familiar environemnts
archaea- hostile + fmailiar

4

3 features of prokarytoes

no nucleus/membrane
circualr dna

5

what does membranes allwo

compatmentalise= allows variations of conditions

6

what are the 3 things that have a double membrane

nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast

7

diff. between glycolipids and glycoproteins

on membrane carbohydrate groups
glycolip= attach to lipids
prot= attach to proteins

8

what is allowed through membrane

small hydrophilic + uncharged polar

9

what requires a transporter across membrane

large polar + ions

10

diff between heterochromatin + euchromatin

H= condensed
E- not condednsed

11

which membrane of the mitochondria is permeable to ions

outer

12

4 basics of steps of energy production

glucose > pyruvate
pyruvate > acetyl CoA
citric acid cycle (acetyl > NADH)
ETC (NADH > electrons> H> ATP)

13

what occurs in cytoplasm of energy production

glucose > pyruvate

14

What is pyruvate converted to

acetyl coa

15

explain citric acid cycle

= mitochondria
= acetyl coa > oxidesed to co2, nadh

16

electron transfer chain condensed reaction

NADH > 2e > hydrogen > ATP

17

steps of ECT

- NADH electrons pass through 3 complexes + 2 mobile electron carriers = proton grad (increase hydrogen concentrations inter membrane v matrix
- H more through ATP synthose membrane to matrix = ATP

18

2 sets of reactions in chloroplasts

light harvesting
carbohydrate production

19

2 organelles of choroplasts

thylakoids, lumen

20

explain light harvesting

light energy collected by pigments > NADH + ATP

21

Explain carbohydrate cycle in chloroplasts

calvin cycle
uses ATP and NADH of light harvesting > sugars

22

two faces of golgi apparatus

cis= adjacten to ER
Trans= points toward membrane

23

explain exocytic pathway

1. proteins synthesised on RER + glycosylated (sugar attached)
2. vesicles bud of ER + fuse with cis golgi + glycosylated
3/leave trans face

24

3 components of cytoskeleton

1. actin, intermediate, microtubules

25

function + place of actin fil

cell shape (only on inside membrane)

26

place of intermediate fil

cytoplasm + nucleus (attachment for chromatin)

27

explain microtubules

hallow tube
extend from structure

28

requirements for hydrogen bonds

polarised molecule with hydrogen thats b/w two electron attracting atoms

29

two roles of carbohydrates

structural, energy source

30

is fatty acid hydrophobic or hydrophilic

amphipathic=
hydrophilic carbonyl head + hydrocarbon hydrophilic tail