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1

major source or nitrogen for most higher plants

nitrate

2

nitrate is the most important nutrient that -- plant growth

limits

3

influx of nitrate occurs -- an electrochemical potential gradient

against

4

reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalyzed in leaf by --

nitrate reductase (NR)

5

NR transfers -- from NADH to nitrate via three redox centers

2 electrons

6

three redox centers

FAD, heme and cofactor with molybdate and pterin

7

reduction of nitrite to ammonium is performed by a -- enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR)

chloroplast

8

majority of enzyme activity is induced by --

nitrate

9

rise in NR is due --

de novo

10

-- is also required for synthesis of nitrate-induced NR and the constitutive NR

light

11

in -- leaf segments are incubated in a solution containing nitrate, 2-propanol, and phosphate buffer

colorimetric in vivo assay for NR

12

nitrite is converted to an -- by reaction with SA and NEED

azodye

13

how to measure nitrite

inhibit nitrite's reduction to ammonia

14

under -- conditions, reduction of nitrite is inhibited

anaerobic

15

add -- to make tissue anaerobic

2-propanol

16

2-propanol also increase -- thus facilitating the energy of nitrate and release of nitrite

cell permeability

17

due to the rxn's sensitivity to molecular oxygen, all operations should be conducted in -- to reduce photosynthesis

dim room light

18

handle hot test tubes with --

tongs

19

surface sterilize seeds by soaking them in a 10% solution of -- for 10 min

commercial bleach

20

water with mineral solution minus --

nitrate

21

growth chamber

14 h light and 10 h dark

22

water in tube #1

5ml

23

experiment 1

NR induction time

24

experiment 2

light requirement for constitutive and induced NR

25

experiment 3

NR activity and the [inducing nitrate]