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Flashcards in Lab Practical 1 Deck (50):
1

Class Calcarea have _______ _______ skeletons.

calcium carbonate

2

Phylum Porifera is the phylum of _______.

sponges

3

Phylum Porifera includes what three classes?

Class Calcarea, Demospongiage, Hexatinellida

4

Bleach dissolves ______ ______ and only _____ will remain.

organic material, spicules

5

Class Demospongiae have skeletons made of ______ _____.

protein fiber

6

Class Hexactinellida has skeletons of ___________ ________.

silicon dioxide

7

Leucosolenia is in what class?

Calcarea

8

What class is Sycon (=Scypha =Grantia) in?

Calcarea

9

Spongilla is in what calss?

Demospongiae

10

What class are bath sponges (Spongia or Hippospongia) in?

Demospongiae

11

Chalina, also known as the finger sponge, is in what class?

Demospongiae

12

Class Hexactinellida has what species in it? (Scientific and common name)

Euplectella aspergillim Owen, 1814
Venus flower basket

13

The central cavity lined with choanocytes that filter and take in food is the _____.

Spongocoel

14

The outer most layer of cells surrounding the body of organisms belonging to the phylum Porifera (sponges), equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms

Pinacoderm

15

By cooperatively moving their flagella, ___________ generate a flow of water through the sponges pores, into the spongocoel, and out through the osculum. These are the inner most layer of a sponges tube wall.

Choancytes (collar cells)

16

_________ are structural elements found in most sponges. They provide structural support and deter predators.

Spicules

17

_______ ______ are a modified type of collagen protein, forms the fibrous skeleton of most organisms among the phylum Porifera, the sponges. It is secreted by sponge cells known as spongioblasts. It gives a sponge its flexibility. True _______ is found only in members of the class Demospongiae.

Spongin fibers

18

_______ is a large opening in a sponge through which water flows out of the sponge. Sponges may have more than one.

Osculum

19

Gemmules are small _____ in sponges which are used to reproduce asexually and allow populations to survive adverse conditions.

buds

20

The body of a sponge has two outer layers separated by an thin, acellular (having no cells) gel layer called the ________. In the gel layer are either spicules or spongin fibers.

mesohyl

21

_____ are the most primitive and simplistic in structure, have radial symmetry, and are tube shaped.

Asconoid

22

a body form of medium complexity in sponges where the body wall has become folded and the choanocytes (flagellated collar cells) are not located along the spongocoel, but along radial canals

syconoid

23

_______ have the body form of highest complexity in sponges. Their form is highly irregular, displays the greatest degree of folding of the body wall, and has lost radial symmetry.

leucanoid

24

The foruth class mentioned in lecture, ________, has been abandoned and its species moved to Calcarea or Demospongiae.

Sclerospongiae

25

Why is a single sieve not an adequate model to explain the structure and function of a sponge?

not all sponges have them, they may differ in different sponges.

26

Why use bleach and not acid to dissolve a sponge's organic material?

Bleach will dissolve the organic material but leave spicules. Acid will dissolve everything.

27

Phylum Cnidaria include what 3 classes?

Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Anthozoa

28

Class Hydra includes orders?

Hydra and Obelia

29

Aurelia aurita also known as moon jellies belong to which class?

Scyphozoa

30

Metridium, Stony Corals, Subclaass Alcyonaria, and Fossil Cnidarians are in what class?

Anthozoa

31

an elevated region, with the mouth at its summit, situated in the center of a cnidarian's oral disc

manubrium

32

the knoblike sensory organs of large jellies consisting of a statocyst, a mechanoreceptor, and a chemoreceptor (and sometimes a photoreceptor); provide information related to gravity-equilibrium, waterborne vibrations (hearing), as well as odor and light detection

Rhopalium

33

a small organ of balance and orientation in some aquatic invertebrates, consisting of a sensory vesicle or cell containing statoliths

statocyst

34

the eyespot, simple photo-receptors, consist of a single lens and several sensory cells, are used to detect movement

Ocellus

35

radial divisions of the stomach that help to increase surface area.

gastric pouches

36

Reproductive organ

gonad

37

are located around the mouth and hold the stinging cells, or cnidocysts, which are used to inject potential prey (or potential predators) with venom.

oral arms

38

_______ have stinging cells in their tips which are used to capture and subdue prey

tentacles

39

a set of narrow, ciliated canals that transport partially digested food to and from the periphery

canals of the bell

40

the region of a cnidarian's body with the mouth and manubrium at its center, and a whorl of tentacles at its margin

oral disc

41

(also known as a basal plate) is, in anatomy of the sea anemone, the surface opposite to the mouth, and generally serves to attach the anemone to the substrate, or hard surface, upon which it lives. It is composed of a thin tissue plate and is used by the animal to adhere to and move across the surface.

pedal disc

42

the muscular part of the digestive system that serves to ingest as well as egest food, behind mouth, leads mouth to digestive cavity

pharynx

43

a blind, saclike cavity lined by gastrodermis and opening to the exterior via the mouth which functions in extracellular digestion, circulation, excretion, reproduction, and hydrostatic skeletal support

gastrovascular cavity

44

consist of angled projections from the sides of the head (gives some flatworms' heads an arrow-shaped appearance), contain concentrations of nerve cells, are sensitive to both touch/moisture/and certain chemicals, increase surface area for these nerves and allow the flatworm to distinguish which side the stimulus is coming from

auricles

45

adding surface area for increased absorption of nutrients

anterior and posterior branches of intestine

46

move liquid past the surface of the cell. For single cells, such as sperm, this enables them to swim. For cells anchored in a tissue, like the epithelial cells lining our air passages, this moves liquid over the surface of the cell

cilia

47

engulf these pieces of food from the digestive cavity

phagocytic cells of gastrodermis

48

equipped with minute, hair-like cilia and glandular cells which secrete mucus in which the cilia beat, enabling the flatworm to glide along

epidermis

49

Loose connective tissue formed of large cells. Its function is to pack the spaces between organs in some simple acoelomate animals,

parenchyma

50

It is a muscular structure for stationing on the host or substrate. In parasitic worms such as annelids, flatworms and roundworms, they are the organs of attachment to the host tissues.

oral sucker