Flashcards in Lab Practical 1 Deck (50):
Class Calcarea have _______ _______ skeletons.
Phylum Porifera is the phylum of _______.
Phylum Porifera includes what three classes?
Class Calcarea, Demospongiage, Hexatinellida
Bleach dissolves ______ ______ and only _____ will remain.
organic material, spicules
Class Demospongiae have skeletons made of ______ _____.
Class Hexactinellida has skeletons of ___________ ________.
Leucosolenia is in what class?
What class is Sycon (=Scypha =Grantia) in?
Spongilla is in what calss?
What class are bath sponges (Spongia or Hippospongia) in?
Chalina, also known as the finger sponge, is in what class?
Class Hexactinellida has what species in it? (Scientific and common name)
Euplectella aspergillim Owen, 1814
Venus flower basket
The central cavity lined with choanocytes that filter and take in food is the _____.
The outer most layer of cells surrounding the body of organisms belonging to the phylum Porifera (sponges), equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms
By cooperatively moving their flagella, ___________ generate a flow of water through the sponges pores, into the spongocoel, and out through the osculum. These are the inner most layer of a sponges tube wall.
Choancytes (collar cells)
_________ are structural elements found in most sponges. They provide structural support and deter predators.
_______ ______ are a modified type of collagen protein, forms the fibrous skeleton of most organisms among the phylum Porifera, the sponges. It is secreted by sponge cells known as spongioblasts. It gives a sponge its flexibility. True _______ is found only in members of the class Demospongiae.
_______ is a large opening in a sponge through which water flows out of the sponge. Sponges may have more than one.
Gemmules are small _____ in sponges which are used to reproduce asexually and allow populations to survive adverse conditions.
The body of a sponge has two outer layers separated by an thin, acellular (having no cells) gel layer called the ________. In the gel layer are either spicules or spongin fibers.
_____ are the most primitive and simplistic in structure, have radial symmetry, and are tube shaped.
a body form of medium complexity in sponges where the body wall has become folded and the choanocytes (flagellated collar cells) are not located along the spongocoel, but along radial canals
_______ have the body form of highest complexity in sponges. Their form is highly irregular, displays the greatest degree of folding of the body wall, and has lost radial symmetry.
The foruth class mentioned in lecture, ________, has been abandoned and its species moved to Calcarea or Demospongiae.
Why is a single sieve not an adequate model to explain the structure and function of a sponge?
not all sponges have them, they may differ in different sponges.
Why use bleach and not acid to dissolve a sponge's organic material?
Bleach will dissolve the organic material but leave spicules. Acid will dissolve everything.
Phylum Cnidaria include what 3 classes?
Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Anthozoa
Class Hydra includes orders?
Hydra and Obelia
Aurelia aurita also known as moon jellies belong to which class?
Metridium, Stony Corals, Subclaass Alcyonaria, and Fossil Cnidarians are in what class?
an elevated region, with the mouth at its summit, situated in the center of a cnidarian's oral disc
the knoblike sensory organs of large jellies consisting of a statocyst, a mechanoreceptor, and a chemoreceptor (and sometimes a photoreceptor); provide information related to gravity-equilibrium, waterborne vibrations (hearing), as well as odor and light detection
a small organ of balance and orientation in some aquatic invertebrates, consisting of a sensory vesicle or cell containing statoliths
the eyespot, simple photo-receptors, consist of a single lens and several sensory cells, are used to detect movement
radial divisions of the stomach that help to increase surface area.
are located around the mouth and hold the stinging cells, or cnidocysts, which are used to inject potential prey (or potential predators) with venom.
_______ have stinging cells in their tips which are used to capture and subdue prey
a set of narrow, ciliated canals that transport partially digested food to and from the periphery
canals of the bell
the region of a cnidarian's body with the mouth and manubrium at its center, and a whorl of tentacles at its margin
(also known as a basal plate) is, in anatomy of the sea anemone, the surface opposite to the mouth, and generally serves to attach the anemone to the substrate, or hard surface, upon which it lives. It is composed of a thin tissue plate and is used by the animal to adhere to and move across the surface.
the muscular part of the digestive system that serves to ingest as well as egest food, behind mouth, leads mouth to digestive cavity
a blind, saclike cavity lined by gastrodermis and opening to the exterior via the mouth which functions in extracellular digestion, circulation, excretion, reproduction, and hydrostatic skeletal support
consist of angled projections from the sides of the head (gives some flatworms' heads an arrow-shaped appearance), contain concentrations of nerve cells, are sensitive to both touch/moisture/and certain chemicals, increase surface area for these nerves and allow the flatworm to distinguish which side the stimulus is coming from
adding surface area for increased absorption of nutrients
anterior and posterior branches of intestine
move liquid past the surface of the cell. For single cells, such as sperm, this enables them to swim. For cells anchored in a tissue, like the epithelial cells lining our air passages, this moves liquid over the surface of the cell
engulf these pieces of food from the digestive cavity
phagocytic cells of gastrodermis
equipped with minute, hair-like cilia and glandular cells which secrete mucus in which the cilia beat, enabling the flatworm to glide along
Loose connective tissue formed of large cells. Its function is to pack the spaces between organs in some simple acoelomate animals,