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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (230):
1

Phylum Annelida =

the segmented worms

2

Name my Phylum: triploblastic, bilateral symmetry, protostome development, cephalization, true coelom, segmentation

Annelida

3

Where are Annelids on the Phylum chart?

between Mollusks and Lophoporates

4

The following characteristics belong to what Phylum? Most with one or more pairs of chitinous setae, vermiform, Flexible/ thin body wall, Closed circulatory system & complete digestive tract, Gas exchange across body wall, Segmentation, Metanephridia

Annelida

5

An Annelid's conspicuously long body is known as what?

vermiform

6

The segmentation of Annelids is known for repetition, this pattern is known as what?

metamerism

7

The Annelid's excretory structures are called what?

Metanephridia

8

Annelida means what?

ringed

9

The body wall of Annelids often plays an important role in ______ and _____ but, it must be kept moist for gases to diffuse, so annelids live in aquatic or moist places.

locomotion and gas exchange

10

Where do Annelids live and why?

Aquatic or moist places because, its body wall must be kept moist for gases to diffuse.

11

In polychaetes and earthworms, segments are separated from one another internally by partitions called ____.

septa

12

The segmentation of Annelids helps with ______. The coelom is divided into segments, and each segment has its own muscles allowing the animal to lengthen one part of its body while shortening another. Changes in pressure of one segment (affects/does not affect) pressures in other segments.

locomotion, does not affect

13

The large, compartmentalized coelom of Annelids serves as a _______.

hydrostatic skeleton`

14

Each segment of an Annelid has a pair of metanephridia used to ____________ and ____________.

excrete wastes and regulate water within the coelom

15

The inner end of an Annelid's metanephridium opens into the ______ as a ciliated funnel (the nephrostome) and the other end opens to the _______ through a nephridiopore.

coelom, outside

16

Class _______ (about 64% of all annelids) include animals like sandworms & tube worms. Subclass ________ (about 27% of all annelids) include earthworms. Subclass ________ (about 5% of all annelids) include leeches.

Polychaetes, Oligochaetes, Hirudinea

17

Class Polychaeta and Clitellata (Subclasses Oligochaete and Hirudinea) are _______ meaning they do not molt.

Lophotrochozoa

18

Most _____ lack setae, while ____ and ______ have them.

leeches/Hirudinea, Cl. Polychaeta and SC Oligochaete

19

Class Clitellata have structure called ______. It secretes a cocoon for development of embryos (the "midsection").

clitellum

20

Name my class. most live in salt water, have parapodia, well-developed head, dioecious, some active & others sedentary.

Class Polychaeta

21

This class is probably the most primitive group of annelids. They live in habitats from intertidal zone to extreme depths; quite a few live in brackish or fresh water, at least 2 sp. are terrestrial. Their size range is from 1 mm to over 3 m. Each body segment typically has a pair of parapodia.

Class Polychaeta

22

Each body segment of Polychaete typically has a pair of paddle-shaped appendages called _____ that function in ________ and ______.

parapodia, locomotion and gas exchange

23

Class Polychaeta are often called bristle worms because of all their bristles, called ____, on each side.

setae

24

In _________ polychaetes, setae, combined with snake-like body waves, help the worm to move along. In _______ {Eurythoe spp}, the bristles have evolved into defensive organs filled with venom which can break off in skin & cause irritation. Setae found in _________ or _______ worms that live in tubes or burrows have often evolved into hooks to help anchor the worm in place.

free-living, Fireworms, sessile or sedentary worms

25

There are two main groups of polychaetes. What are they?

Active (errant) and sedentary

26

What group of polychaetes have a well-developed parapodia that they use like oars, a well-developed head with jaws on a protrusable pharynx? Most of them are carnivorous but some are herbivores, detritus feeders, and omnivores.

Active (errant) polychaetes

27

Which group of polychaetes spend their lives in burrows in sediments or live in stiff, protective tubes made from sand grains or mud mixed with secretions or made out of calcium carbonate or a protein/carbohydrate mixture? These species have much reduced, modified, or no parapodia and lack a protrusable pharynx.

Sedentary polychaetes

28

A lot of sedentary polychaetes have feathery appendages which they extend out of their burrows. What are these used for?

Some are used for gathering food and others are for gas exchange.

29

All sedentary polychaetes are what finds of feeders?

deposit feeders or suspension feeders

30

Bloodworms are a type of _____ polychaetes.

active (errant)

31

What is the scientific name for bloodworms?

Glycera

32

There are ___ to ___ species of bloodworms. They cost __ per pound. They are _____ with poison "fangs."

300 to 500, $1, carnivores

33

What is Maine's most valuable marine resource?

bloodworms

34

Most Polychaetes are ____ and only use ____ reproduction. However, they can reproduce _____.

dioecious, sexual, asexually

35

Male Polychaetes don't not have distinct gonads. Gametes are produced by ________. Then, they are released in the _____ to ____ and can leave the body through _____.

peritoneal tissue, coelom to mature, nephridopore

36

At least ___ segments of Polychaetes are used for making gametes. Some species use _____ segments.

6, almost all their

37

Epitoky (upon birth), the bodies of some species of Polychaetes will transform into a ________ form that is well suited for _________ and __________.

reproductive, swimming and sexual reproduction

38

Polychaetes asexually reproduce, budding off reproductive units called what? Where do they bud from and what is it called?

epitokes, Their hind ends. atoke

39

Polychaete eggs are fertilized _____ and a ____ larvae will form. It is called a ________ larvae.

externally, free-living, trochophore

40

What am I? I can swim and drift and therefore represent the important dispersal stage, especially important for the sedentary adults. I grow by budding new segments as my posterior end (anterior to the pygidium). Each is equipped with cilia to help swim. After a number of weeks of getting longer and more adult-like, I will metamorphose into an adult form and will take on the adult lifestyle.

Polychaete trochophore larvae

41

Some species of Polychaetes don’t have a free-living larval stage. Instead, they

develop in an egg mass in the sediment or in Momma’s tube or in some, her brooding chamber.

42

Polychaetes are part of the _______ community.

marine plankton

43

Most Polychaetes will feed. They have _______ digestive tract)

a complete

44

Family Siboglinidae are the ___________. They are a small family (about ___ species) of Polychaetes that used to be called Phylum Pogonophora.

Deep sea tubeworms, 150

45

This family of Polychaetes are sedentary tube-builders, segmented (only have setae on opisthoma). They have no mouth, gut, or anus, and have a trophosome.

Siboglinidae

46

What is a trophosome?

a specialized organ in Siboglinidae filled with symbotic, chemosynthetic bacteria

47

One group of Family Siboglinidae is called the ______. Riftia pachyptila is a member of this group.

vestimentiferans

48

What class am I? There are about 160 species of me, I range from a few mm to >8 cm, I am not segmented as an adult, I live in sandy or muddy burrows, I am a deposit feeder, and I have crazy proboscis.

The Echiurans (Phylum Annelida)

49

Within the Echiurans, there is no segmentation or metamerism in extant species, but there is evidence of ___________ in the fossil record.

metamerism (serial segmentation)

50

All species of Echiurans are ______ and in most species males and females look similar. However, some species, like B. viridis, show extreme ________. The males are very small and live either on or in the female, usually in groups of about 20.

dioecious, sexual dimorphism

51

What does the Subclass Oligochaeta mean?

few setae

52

Who am I? I am terrestrial, freshwater and marine, I usually feed on detritus, I have a specialized digestive system to obtain the maximum amount of nutrients out of the detritus (e.g. typhlosole, gizzard, crop…).

Subclass Oligochaeta

53

Class Oligochaeta consist of ____ and _____ that live in terrestrial or freshwater environments. As shown by the class name, these worms lack the bristles that allow movement and increase surface area. There are some that are marine, but most (94%) are ____ or ____.

earthworms and other worms, terrestrial or freshwater

54

One oligochaete, the earthworm, ____ and ____ the soil as they burrow and enrich it with nitrogenous wastes. An earthworm ingests its own weight in soil and detritus every 24 hours! Darwin calculated that earthworms move ____ of soil to the surface per acre every year!

turn and aerate, 18 tons

55

Oligochaetes have an ____ circulatory system with 2 main longitudinal blood vessels. The ____ collects blood from vessels in the segments, then contracts to pump blood anteriorly. In the esophagus region, ____ propel blood from the dorsal to the ventral blood vessel. The ventral vessel carries blood ____. Small vessels branch from it & deliver blood to various structures in each segment and to the body wall. Within these structures blood flows through tiny capillaries before returning to the ____.

closed, dorsal blood vessel, five pairs of blood vessels (“hearts”), posteriorly, dorsal vessel

56

An Oligochaete's gas exchange occurs through _____. Mucus is secreted by _____ and oxygen is transported by _____.

the moist skin, gland cells of the epidermis, hemoglobin in the blood plasma

57

The Oligochaete nervous system consists of _____, _____, and each segment has ________.

a pair of cerebral ganglia, a ventral nerve cord, a pair of fused ganglia along the nerve cord

58

What is a cerebral ganglia and where is it located in Oligochaete?

a simple brain, just above the pharynx

59

Where does the ventral nerve cord run in Oligochaete?

from the ganglia down the length of the body

60

Each segment of an Oligochaete has a pair of fused ganglia where? Nerves extend _____ from ______. The ganglia control the ________ which allow the worms to creep.

along the nerve cord, laterally from the ganglia to the muscles and other structures of the segment, muscle contractions

61

What is a typhlosole and what is it used for?

infolding of the dorsal side of the intestine, It increases surface area for absorption of nutrients.

62

Oligochaetes are _________ and ________ by exchanging sperm.

simultaneous hermaphrodites, cross-fertilize

63

Some species of Subclass Oligochaeta can use _____ reproduction. Adults can divide into separate crosswise sections and each section regenerates the rest of the body. Some use ______ in which eggs can develop without fertilization.

asexual, parthenogenesis

64

Who am I? I am usually freshwater but there are some marine and terrestrial species of me. About 75% of us are blood-sucking parasites. I have no septa between metameres and no setae or parapodia. However, I do have 2 suckers at each end of my body.

Subclass Hirudinea (Leeches)

65

Some leeches are _________ that capture small invertebrates like earthworms and snails.

non-parasitic predators

66

Most parasitic leeches attach themselves to a _____ host, bite through the skin, and suck out blood and store it in their ______. What do they use to keep the blood flowing.

vertebrate, crop diverticula (pouches), Hirudin - an anti-coagulant secreted by the salivary glands

67

Subclass Hirudinea are the what?

leeches

68

Subclass Hirudinea lack septa between metameres, so they are incapable of moving like what? Instead, they use their ___ and ______ to move.

Oligochaetes, anterior and posterior suckers

69

Leeches are simultaneous ______. They _____ by exchanging sperm and fertilization is ____. Fertilized eggs develop within _______ produced by the _____.

hermaphrodites, cross-fertilize, internal, external cocoons, clitellum

70

_______ have been used medicinally since the 19th century. They are currently used to increase blood flow following reconstructive surgery.

Leeches

71

________ is a powerful anticoagulant that is found in the salivary glands of leeches.

Hirudin

72

Who am I? The anterior part of my body forms an eversible and fully retractable proboscis with a mouth at the end, I have a multicellular body called a ___ in my coelomic fluid.

The Sipunculans (Peanut worms), urn

73

What are the Sipunculans' (Peanut worm's) urns specialized for?

accumulating wastes

74

The peanut worms have anterior tentacles connected to a series of muscular sacs, what do they do?

pump fluid into the tentacles and store fluid when the tentacles retract

75

Unsegmented worms with well-developed fluid filled coelom, have no setae, have a cuticle, an epidermis, a layer of circular muscles, and a layer of longitudinal muscles. They have a tough cuticle exoskeleton, range from .5 - 24 inches in size (most are small in size), are strictly marine found in all oceans at all depths most are shallow water species and can burrow in sediments or hide in crevices of rocks.

The Sipunculans (Peanut worms

76

The Sipunculans are either ______ feeders (ingest sediment) or _______ feeders (using tentacles) and feed mainly on ____________. They do not secrete tubes but are commonly found in ______________. There are ___ species worldwide.

deposit, suspension, organic material, burrows in muddy or sandy sediments, 350

77

The mouth and anus of the Sipunculan are both located at the _____ end resulting in a U shaped gut.

anterior

78

Sipunculans excrete waste via a _________, helped by ____.

pair of nephridia, helped by urns

79

What are urns in the Sipunculans?

, groups of cells that float in the coelom collecting solid wastes and brings them to the body wall or to a nephridium

80

Sipunculan's gas exchange takes place where?

across the tentacles

81

If you were dropped just about anywhere on the planet, the odds are great that the first animal you would meet would be an ______.

arthropod

82

They range in size from tiny mites and crustaceans less than 1mm long to great Japanese spider crabs with leg spans over 9 feet. Who are they?

Arthropods

83

There are will over _______ species of described living arthropods and undoubtedly many more that are undescribed species (estimates range from _ million to over ___ million species). Most of this undiscovered diversity is within the ____ and ____ on land and the _____ in the sea. Arthropods make up _______ of all animal species!

1 million, 3, 100, insects and mites, crustaceans, at least 75%

84

What are the similarities between annelids and arthropods? (3)

1) body metamerism, 2) their embryonic development, and 3) the general structure of their nervous systems.

85

The major differences between annelids and arthropods structure are a result of the _______ in arthropods which led to the evolution of jointed legs (where they get their name).

invention of a rigid exoskeleton

86

Arthropods appear to be more closely related to nematodes, tardigrades, and onychophorans because members of these four phyla shed their outer cuticle as they grow = ecdysis (= molting). So, they are grouped in the ______.

Ecdysozoa

87

The Arthropoda Subphylum _______ are all extinct. It was a very successful group but we only know it through the fossil record

Trilobitmorpha

88

Subphylum _______ consist of Class Merostomata, Class Arachnida, and Class Pycnogonida.

Chelicerata

89

What does Class Merostomata consist of?

horseshoe crabs

90

What does Class Arachnida consist of?

spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions

91

What does Class Pycnogonida consist of?

sea spiders

92

The Arthropod Subphylum Mandibulata has 3 superclasses. What are they?

Myriapoda, Hexapoda, and Crustacea

93

Superclass Myriapoda consist of what?

centipedes and millipedes

94

Superclass Hexapoda consist of two classes what are they?

Class Entognatha and Insecta

95

Are members of Class Entognatha winged or wingless? What does it consist of?

wingless, Collembola (springtails)

96

Class Insecta has 2 superclasses. What are they and are they winged or wingless?

Subclass Apterygota (wingless)
Subclass Pterygota (winged)

97

What does Subclass Apterygota consist of?

bristletails & silverfish

98

Superclass Crustacea consist of 6 classes. They are:

Class Malacostraca, Class Branchiopoda, Class Ostracoda, Class Copepoda, Class Pentastomida
Class Cirripedia

99

Class Malacostraca includes what?

pillbugs, krill, crabs, & shrimp

100

Class Branchiopoda includes what?

brine shrimp, water fleas

101

Class Ostracoda includes what?

the ostracods

102

Class Copepoda includes what?

the copepods

103

Class Pentastomida includes what?

internal parasites of vertebrates (mostly reptiles)

104

Class Cirripedia includes what?

the barnacles

105

Name my Phylum. Segmented animals with paired, jointed appendages, Armor-like exoskeleton of chitin, Complete loss of motile cilia in adult and larval stages

Phylum Arthropoda

106

What is one of the major synapomorphies of Arthropods?

the hard jointed exoskeleton of chitin that makes them different from their soft-bodied relatives

107

What is a selective advantage of an exoskeleton?

protection against predation, injury, physiological stress, and against water and salt loss or gain = helps maintain homeostasis

108

The exoskeleton of the Arthropods resulted in constraints on what 3 things?

growth, movement, loss of all mobile body cilia

109

What does animal rubber do? What does it allow?

stores energy when compressed and then smoothly releases it, allows for activities like jumping and flying

110

Flexibility in Arthropods is allowed by ________ with a very elastic protein called ____ or ____.

thin intersegmental joints, resilin or “animal rubber”

111

Circular muscles found in annelids and arthropod ancestors are almost completely lost in Arthropods. They are only found where?

in tubes like the digestive tract

112

How did Arthropods solve the problem of getting around?

the evolution of body and appendage joints and by concentrating the muscles in certain places

113

What works together in Arthropods as a lever system to allow movement?

the exoskeleton and antagonistic muscle pairs

114

Since Arthropods no longer used _____ (waves of muscle contractions) to move around, the coelom became almost completely useless as a hydrostatic skeleton. So it was reduced in size and an _________ evolved.

peristalsis, open circulatory system

115

In Arthropods, the main body cavity became a ____ which is a blood chamber in which the various organs are bathed directly in body fluids.

hemocoel

116

Athropod blood, called _____, serves to transport ____, ____, and _____. Most larger arthropods have respiratory pigments dissolved in the hemolymph - ______ or ______.

hemolymph; nutrients, wastes, and usually gases; hemocyanin or hemoglobin

117

Both crustaceans and arthropods have a hard protective covering secreted by the epidermis but they are quite different in terms of _____ and ____.

composition and function

118

This part of an Arthropoda exoskeleton is usually waxy. It keeps water out and in so the surface is no good for gas exchange.

Epicuticle

119

This layer of an Athropod's exoskeleton makes up most of the exoskeleton. It is made up of the polysaccharide chiton.

procuticle

120

What is strong and biodegradable; there is interest in using it commercially for fabrics, surgical sutures, biodegradable capsules for gradual delivery of drugs, and maybe a substitute for plastic wrap. Since it binds well to many compounds it might be useful for removing toxic chemicals from drinking water and during sewage treatment.

Chitin

121

In some groups like the crustaceans, the _____ is strengthened by deposits of calcium salts.

procuticle

122

In insects, the cuticle is hardened by “tanning” cross-linkages of protein chains. This is known as what?

sclerotization

123

Why do Arthropods have to molt?

because they have a hard exoskeleton the prevents them from just gradually growing

124

Molting is the hormone controlled process of _____.

ecdysis

125

When an Arthropod molts, what form is the new cuticle secreted? Where? What happens to the old cuticle?

in a soft form, beneath the old cuticle, it is split by the uptake of air, water, or increased blood pressure

126

What does tagmosis involve?

specialization of different segments

127

What are the specialized body regions of tagmosis called?

Tagmata

128

What are the 3 tagmata of the bedbug?

head, thorax, and abdomen

129

What is a Cimex lectularius?

the common bedbug

130

Where is the bedbug found?

in temperate climates throughout the world

131

A regular diet of _____ is necessary for bed bugs to reach maturity. Bed bugs are generally active only _______, with a peak attack period about ________ but it may feed at other times of day.

blood, at night, an hour before dawn

132

Bedbugs are attracted by _______ and ______. It pierces the skin of its host with two hollow tubes. With one tube it injects its saliva, which contains ______ and ______, while with the other it withdraws the blood of its host.

warmth and the presence of carbon dioxide, anticoagulants and anesthetics

133

Arthropods have two types of visual systems. What are they?

compound eyes or ocelli

134

Which type of Arthropod visual system can form images and is common among insects and crustaceans.

compound eyes

135

Unlike the human eye, the compound eyes of Arthropods have many ____. Each ommatidium has a lens known as the _____ and there may be thousands of _____. The focus of each lens cannot be adjusted but they have great depth of field.

lenses, cornea, ommatidia

136

Insect and crustacean eyes are sensitive to & some use it for navigation as they fly. ____ can also be sensitive to ultraviolet light and can see patterns on flowers that guide them to nectar.

polarization of light, insects

137

What are ocelli?

simple eyes for detection of light but don’t form an image

138

What is a Culex spp.?

The common house mosquito

139

Where do the Culex species lay their floating egg rafts?

in still or stagnant water

140

What is the West Nile virus primarily transmitted by?

Culex pipiens mosquitoes

141

How do mosquitoes become infected with the West Nile Virus?

by biting certain birds carry the virus

142

What can the West Nile virus cause in humans?

encephalitis and meningitis

143

Culex spp. can carry the West Nile virus along with _______ and ______. They can also carry _____ and ____.

western equine and Saint Louis encephalitis. viral encephalitis and filariasis.

144

Extinct marine arthropods covered by a hard, segmented shell

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha, Class Trilobita

145

Each segment of Class Trilobita had a pair of _______ with two jointed branches. The two branches were the _____ and ______.

biramous appendages, inner walking leg and outer gill branch

146

From their fossil record, we have found about _____ species of Subphylum Trilobitomorpha.

4,000

147

Though all Trilobites were marine, they had different lifestyles. Some were _____ while some were _____. They also had different feeding habits. Most were probably _____ but some may have been ___.

benthic (crawling around on the bottom), planktonic
scavengers, predators

148

Who am I? No antennae or mandibles, have a Prosoma and a Opisthosoma, chelicerae and pedipalps, My appendages are adapted for manipulation of food, locomotion, defense, and copulation

Subphylum Chelicerata

149

The prosoma in Subphylum Chlicerata is what body part?

cephalothorax

150

The opisthosoma in Subphylum Chlicerata is what body part?

abdomen

151

The first pair of appendages on Subphylum Chelicrata are adapted for what? what are they called?

feeding, chelicerae

152

What are the second pair of appendages of Subphylum Chelicerata called?

pedipalps

153

Most members of this class are extinct. There are only 4 living species.

Class Merostomata

154

Class Merostomata is part of what subphylum?

Chelicerata

155

The appendages on Class Merostomata's opisthosoma are ____ and modified for what?

flattened, gas exchange
(Class Merostomata have a tejson)

156

Limulus polyphemus is the scientific name for what?

horseshoe crabs

157

What class do these animals belong in? Spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, etc.

Class Arachnida

158

There are over ___ species of Class Arachnida and nearly all of them are ____.

70,000
terrestrial

159

What covers Class Arachnida's prosoma, wholly or in part?

carapace

160

Opisthomal appendages in Class Arachnida are either absent of modified as _____ in spiders or ____ in scorpions.

spinnerets, pectines

161

Class Arachnida have _ to _ pairs of eyes, most often _ pairs.

0-4, 4

162

Gas exchange in Class Arachnida can be done by the ____, _____, or ______.

tracheae, book lungs, or both

163

Most Arachnids are what type of feeders?

carnivores

164

Carnivorous arachnids squirt ________ into their prey so that the prey is predigested _______ their body. After enough time has passed, the liquidized prey tissues are sucked up & moved into the stomach. Most digestion and absorption takes place in the _________ which branch off of the stomach and mid-gut.

digestive enzymes, outside, digestive diverticula

165

_______ are one of the most abundant groups of land animals that live in almost every kind of terrestrial habitat and some ________ and _____ habitats too

Spiders, freshwater and intertidal

166

Toxicity of spider venoms is quite variable. Only about 2 dozen species are considered dangerous to humans. What are those 2?

black widows and brown recluse spiders

167

What order are spiders in?

Araneae

168

The chelicerae in spiders have been modified to what?

fangs, usually with venom glands

169

Lung slits on spiders are found where? They are the entrance of what?

opisthosoma
book lungs

170

What is the pedicel on a spider? What does it do?

The stalk connecting the prosoma and opisthosoma. Allows for movement of abdomen in building a web and capturing prey.

171

Misumena vatia is the scientific name for what?

The crab spider,
also known as the goldenrod spider

172

The ___________ can gradually change to the color of the flower upon which it sits. It captures flies and bees 2 to 3 times its size.

crab spider

173

Where are the spinnerets on a spider?

The VERY back end

174

The uses of silk by a spider includes what?

webs for catching prey, safety lines for climbing, egg sacks, threads for aerial dispersal, and “scuba tanks” for underwater hunting

175

A spiders respiration system can include what?

Book lungs, a tracheae, or both

176

____ are localized and don’t extend far into the body. They have to get enough circulating blood to ensure adequate distribution of oxygen throughout the body & removal of CO2.

Book lungs

177

Spiders have a(n) _____ circulatory system like all arthropods.

open

178

Oxygenated spider blood returns directly to the heart by the ________.

lung vein

179

Note:

The many flattened air spaces of a spiders book lungs are separated from each other by thin blood-filled extensions of the hemocoel. There is a lot of surface area between the “pages” of the book lungs and the hemolymph.

180

There are up to _ pair of spinnerets connected to glands that produce silk proteins.

4

181

There may be _____ kinds of silk glands on a spider, each producing different types of silk for different purposes.

7 or more

182

What order are ticks and mites in?

order Acari

183

Many species of Acari hold _____ or _____ importance. Most mites are ____ while ticks are up to ____ long.

economic or medical, 1mm or less, 6mm

184

Ticks and mites are diverse in what ways?

Feeding, habitats, hosts

185

Acari feeding habits include what?

Omnivores, Carnivores, and Herbivores

186

Where do ticks and mites live?

woods, moss, ant colonies, bird nests, bat guano, freshwater, and marine

187

What species are included in the parasitic hosts of mites and ticks?

birds, lizards, humans, spiders, bees, sea urchins, slugs, etc.

188

Some ticks and mites are very bad _________ and are vectors of ______, _____, and _____. Many people have allergies to _____ or ____ in household dust.

agricultural pests; Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and encephalitis; mite feces or exoskeletons

189

In ticks and mites, the ________ and ________ are fused together and whole dorsal surface is covered by a _____.

prosoma and opisthosoma, carapace

190

Amblyomma americanum is the ______. They live in wooded areas with underbrush, along creeks and rivers near animal resting places.

Lone star tick

191

Ixodes scapularis is the ________. They are a blood sucking arachnid that can cause disease in humans and animals.

deer tick

192

Ixodes sp. can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes ______. This disease is characterized by fever and joint inflammation.

Lyme disease

193

Varroa destructor is the ____. They are external honey bee parasites that attack both the adults and the brood. The mites suck the blood (hemolymph) from both the adults and the developing brood, weakening and shortening the life span of the ones on which they feed.

Varroa bee mite

194

Varroa mites reproduce on a ____ cycle.

10 day

195

Emerging brood affected by Varroa mites may be deformed with what? Untreated infestations of varroa mites that are allowed to reproduce will kill honey bee colonies. Treatment has had limited success.

missing legs or wings

196

The _____ has been the parasite with the most pronounced economic impact on the beekeeping industry. It may be a contributing factor to Colony Collapse Disorder that is threatening hives throughout North America. This mite is considered one of the most serious honey bee pests and occurs almost worldwide.

Varroa mite

197

Dermatophagoides are the _______. Millions of them inhabit the home, feeding on dead scales of human skin that are common in house dust. The average double bed contains about two million of these mites of various species.

Dust mites

198

Dust mites produce ____ waste particles per day. The dead bodies and fecal pellets can trigger allergic responses.

10-20

199

The whole life cycle of a dust mite from egg to adult takes approximately _____ to complete, mature female mites can lay from ___ eggs per day.

one month, 1-2

200

Adult dust mites can live up to _____ but this is dependent on the levels of humidity and temperature of their surrounding environment.

two months

201

Class Pycnogonida are the _______.

sea spiders

202

What class am I? Body not divided into tagmata, Unique proboscis with a mouth opening at the tip, Variable number of walking legs among species

Class Pycnogonida (sea spiders)

203

There are about ____ species of sea spiders. They are strictly _____ from _____ to _____ and worldwide distribution.

1,000, marine, intertidal to deep

204

Most sea spiders are small with leg spans ____ but some deep sea species have up to ____ leg spans.

less than a centimeter, 60 cm

205

Class Pycnogonida has a body of mostly the _____ with the ____ just a short stump. What do they lack?

prosoma, abdomen, a respiratory and excretory system

206

What are ovigers on sea spiders? What are they used for?

special appendages attached to the head; used for different purposes, like grooming, but males also use them to carry the eggs after fertilization

207

Most adult sea spiders are ____ and ____ on things like sponges. Some adults and lots of larvae are ___ or ____ on various marine invertebrates.

free-living and carnivorous, parasitic or commensal

208

Subphylum Mandibulata includes what?

centipedes, millipedes, insects, crustacea

209

Who am I? I have appendages on my 3rd head segment and they are modifies as mandibles, for chewing or grinding food. The retinula of my compound eys contain 8 cells.

Subphylum Mandibulata

210

There are 2 orders of Superclass Myriapoda. They are Chilopoda, the ____, and Diplopoda, the _____.

centipedes, millipedes

211

Who am I? I have uniramous appendages, a single pair of antennae, no compound eyes (well some of us do), and many of us have a repugnatorial gland.

Superclass Myriapoda

212

What does myriapoda mean?

many feet

213

Repugnatorial glands on the ____ of the body eject a variety of nasty toxin secretions so many predators avoid eating them.

underside

214

What's my order? active aggressive predators on smaller invertebrates, live in soil, humus, under logs, sometime in homes, most are terrestrial, some marine. We have tracheae but spiracles can’t be closed so we stay in moist environments. We would lose too much water in dry environments. Many are nocturnal to conserve water

Order Chilopoda (centipedes)

215

_____ have poison glands but _____ do not and there are 3 times as many of these species.

Centipedes, millipedes

216

most are slow-moving detritivores, a few groups are predaceous and eat dead/decaying plant matter, play an important role in the recycling of leaf litter. pairs of segments are fused so that each combo-segment has 2 pairs of legs

Order Diplopoda (Millipede)

217

What class? Fusion of one pair of head appendages (the 2nd maxillae), to form a labium, Loss of all abdominal appendages

Class Insecta (w/i Superclass Hexapoda)

218

Insects live everywhere but where? How many species have been described?

the deep sea, nearly one million

219

One of every 3 species of insects is a what?

beetle

220

The _____ is far and way the largest insect order with an estimated 350,000 described species.

Coleoptera (beetle)

221

The weevil family of beetles (_____) contains about 65,000 species. That is nearly 5% of all described animal species & by itself is larger than any other non-arthropod phylum.

Curculionidae

222

Insects plat a major role in terrestrial food webs. ____ of the world’s crop species rely on animal pollinators, nearly all of which are insects. They consume about __ of our potential annual harvest and transmit many major human diseases.

80%, 1/3

223

Apis mellifera are the what?

domestic honey bees

224

Aedes are the what?

mosquitoes

225

What are the reasons for insect success?

Small size, Feeding specializations, Water proof exoskeleton, Metamorphosis, Reproductive potential, Co-evolution with plants, Evolution of flight

226

Characteristics of what? Body with head, thorax, and abdomen; Thorax with 3 segments, each with pair of legs' Adults typically with 2 pairs of wings; Single pair of antennae ;Uniramous legs; Tracheae for gas exchange; Malpighian tubules for excretion; Many with tympanal organs, for hearing

insects

227

____ are “auditory sensory cells attached to a thin, external vibrating membrane." They are associated with the tracheal system. Insects use these organs to sense predators and to help with communication.

tympanal organs

228

The Insect head has 4 pairs of appendages. What are they?

antennae, mandibles
maxillae, labium (fused second maxillae)

229

The ___ is the upper lip. It helps hold food in place. The ____ is a short tongue-like structure between the maxillae that helps with swallowing. In most insects the ducts from the salivary glands open on here.

Labrum, hypopharynx

230

The ____ and _____ are both involved in manipulating food and both have palps which are used in sensing (“tasting”) the potential food.

maxillae and labium