Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Invertabrate Zoology > Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (135):
1

List the 4 major environments

Marine, Estuaries, Freshwater, Terrestrial

2

In which environment did life originate?

Marine

3

Where is most animal life found today?

Marine

4

Estuaries are ____ ____ coastal, interaction of ____ and ____ environments, brackish, ____ influence, and ____ rich.

low lying, fresh, marine, tidal, nutrient

5

Running freshwater is known as ____.

lotic

6

Standing freshwater is known as _____.

lentic

7

Body size of freshwater fluctuates due to these 4 reasons.

temperature, dissolved gasses, pH, and salinity

8

Terrestrial environments are most _____ due to ____ ____ and ____.

severe, temperature extremes, moisture

9

Respiration: aquatic vs. terrestrial

-internal/external gills, body surface
-lungs, tracheal system (internalization)

10

Excretion: terrestrial vs. aquatic (What do they excrete?)

-urea
-ammonia

11

Fertilization: aquatic vs. terrestrial

external
internal

12

Development: terrestrial vs. aquatic

often internal, can be external
external

13

Characteristics of animals (8)

lack of cell wall, multicellular eukaryotes, membrane bound organelles, heterotrophic, motility, diploid, specialization of cells, most capable of locomotion at some point in life

14

Define invertebrate

an animal without a backbone

15

What does protozoa mean?

the very first animals

16

Why are animals referred to as metazoans?

the animals that came after the first animals

17

What are protozoa invertebrates?

Some consider them unicellular invertebrates but they are not true animals.

18

Define taxonomy

a branch of systematics that deals with naming, describing, and classifying organisms

19

Define systematics

the study of diversity and evolutionary relationships

20

To determine evolutionary relationship we depend on (3)

fossils, similarities in body plan, and patterns of development

21

The earliest known animal fossils are called _____.

Ediacaran

22

The relatively sudden appearance of most of the existing phyla of animals has been named the ____ ____.

Cambrian Explosion

23

Define classification

assigning organisms into groups based on similarities

24

What is the goal of systematics?

to reconstruct phylogeny

25

Define phylogeny

the evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor.

26

Define symmetry

arrangement of body structures in relation to the body axis

27

In radial symmetry, many planes can be drawn through the _____ axis; each divides the animal into ___ ___ images.

central, two mirror

28

_____ is the concentration of nervous and sensory tissues and organs at one end of an animal; evolved with bilateral symmetry.

Cephalization

29

_____ and _____ are closely related because they share radial symmetry. Most other animals show bilateral symmetry.

Cnidarians and ctenophores

30

In cephalization, the head of the animal is its ____ end, and the opposite end is its ___ end. The animal has _____ and _____ halves that are mirror images of each other.

anterior, posterior, right/left

31

A diploblasitc has only the _____ and _____ germ layers.

ectoderm and endoderm

32

A triploblastic has ____, _____, and ____. Most of the invertebrate phyla are classified here.

ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

33

The ectoderm is the ____ layer. What is its function?

outer, to give rise to the body covering, nervous system

34

The _____ is the inner layer. It lines the gut and other digestive organs.

endoderm

35

The middle layer is called the ____. What is its function?

mesoderm, it gives rise to most other body structures

36

Acoelomate = ____ body cavity. An example of this are _____.

no, flatworms

37

______ = a body cavity not completely lined with mesoderm. An example of this would be _____.

Pseudocoelomate, roundworms

38

An animal with a true body coelom is known as a _____. Examples of this include ____, ____, ____, and ____.

coelomate; molluscs, annelids, arthropods, and beagles

39

A ____ is a fluid filled space between the body wall and the digestive tube.

coelum

40

Protostomes form their _____ before their ____; which is why they are also known as "_____ ____."

mouths, anus, first mouth

41

_____ form their anus before they form their mouths. Therefore, they are called " _____ _____."

Deuterostomes, second mouth

42

Examples of protostomes include ____, ____, and ____.

molluscs, annelids, arthopods

43

An example of a deuterostome is a ____.

human

44

A _____ is an opening from the embryonic gut to the outside.

blastopore

45

In protostomes, the blastopore usually develops into the _____.

mouth

46

In _____, the blastopore may become the anus and the mouth will form somewhere else.

deuterostomes

47

Protostomes undergo _____ cleavage while deuterostomes undergo _____ cleavage.

spiral, radial

48

Deuterostomes have early cell divisions either _____ or at ___ ____ to the polar axis while protostomes have early cell divisions _____ to the polar axis.

parallel, right angles, diagonal

49

In deuterostomes, cells lie _____________________.

directly above or below one another

50

Protostomes undergo ______ cleavage while deuterostomes undergo ______ cleavage.

determinate, indeterminate

51

In _____ cleavage, the fate of each embryonic cell is fixed very early.

determinate

52

In _____ cleavage, the fate of each embryonic cells is more flexible.

indeterminate

53

_______ _______ confirmed much of the animal phylogeny based on structure and developmental characteristics.

Molecular systematics

54

Molecular systematics tell us that not all animal body plans evolved from ____ to _____.

simple, complex

55

Molecular Systematics cant do three things. What are they?

reveal exact steps as one group gave arise to another, tell selective pressures that caused changes, and tell us what ancestral animals looked like.

56

Lophotrochoza are ____/____ animals.

crest/wheel

57

Ecdysozoa are animals _____ _____.

that molt

58

The _____ is a ciliated organ around the mouth used for collecting food and gas exchange.

lophophore

59

_____ _____ allow biologist with different languages to communicate about organisms.

Scientific names

60

_____ _____ came up with the hierarchical system of classification in 1758.

Carolus Linnaeus

61

What is the order of classification that Carolus came up with?

Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

62

Members of a species share a ____ ____.

gene pool

63

Each species name has two parts. What are they?

Genus name and specific epithet

64

Species: Psilotreata rossi Wallace, 1970 and Psilotreata indecisa (Walker, 1852)
Why is Walker in () and Wallace not? What are the years for?

Walker's species has been moved to a different genus since he named it. When they named it.

65

_____ insist that taxa be monophyletic.

Cladistics

66

_____ are shared derived characters.

Synapomorphies

67

Cladistics use _______ to determine relationships.

Synapomophies

68

____ consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants.

Clades

69

_____ are used to show which taxa shared a common ancestor and how recently they shared it.

Cladograms

70

Nodes show ___________

divergence of groups from a common ancestor.

71

The most recent common ancestor of each _____ _____ is found at the node.

monophyletic group

72

________ ___________ determines which characters in a given group of taxa are ancestral and which are derived.

Outgroup analysis

73

_____ are taxon that represents ancestral condition. They diverged earlier than other taxa investigated.

Outgroups

74

What is monophyletic?

1 phyla

75

Which is considered to be good: monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic?

Polyphyletic

76

In searching for the origins of animal life, what lines of evidence have been used?

fossils

77

What systems/abilities do sponges lack? (6)

muscles, limbs, brain, definitive shapes, movement (for the most part), and a nervous system

78

What abilities do sponges have? (5)

cologen, sucking in water and filtering out food particles, "hearts," central cavity, and sperm/eggs

79

What materials are used to give sponges their rigidity and form?

Spicules and cologen

80

How old are the ancient sponge fossils found in China?

550 million years old

81

What evidence has been used to conclude that sponges are at the base of the animal tree?

Fossils and genetic sequences

82

The Poriferan classification incudes 4 classes. What are they?

Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, Homoscleromorpha

83

Class Calcarea have skeletons of _____ ________.

calcium carbonate

84

Class Demospongiae have skeletons of _______ _____, _____, and/or _____.

spongin protein, chitin, silica

85

Class Hexactinellida have skeletons of ____ and _____.

silica and chitin

86

Class Homoscleromorpha mostly lack ____ but, if present, are made of _____.

spicules, silica

87

In what way are cindarians more complex than sponges? What characteristics did they add? (7)

movement, sensitive tentacles, predatory, mouth, muscles, stomach, and nerves

88

What do these additions allow cnidarians to do?

capture food, digestion, compete

89

Name and describe the two different versions of the cnidarian body plan.

Medusa - bell shaped
Stalk like with trailing tails

90

What are nematocysts? What do they do?

explosive cells found on the tail of jelly fish, capture and kill prey

91

If the pulsing of a jellyfish isn't only for locomotion, what else does it do?

help capture prey

92

How do animals without brains perform and control their activities?

nerve network - receive and respond to stimuli

93

What kind of skeleton does an anemone have, and how does it work? How is it different from the human skeleton?

Hydrostatic
Movements - circular, long
Put together, push against water to move
Human - skeletal frame, muscles pull to move

94

______ sponges filter water to feed so, they are thought to be good indicators of pollution.

Freshwater

95

______ contain cells from which new sponges grow. This is a type of _____ reproduction.

Gemmules, asexual

96

Most sponges are _________. This means there is not a distinct male and female.

hermaohrodites

97

Some sponges are ________ to form sperm, others eggs but, these are usually made at different times so they cross-fertilize with other sponges.

archaeocytes

98

Where does fertilization and early development of a sponge take place?

mesohyl

99

Bacteria sometimes make up __% of a sponges volume.

40

100

What are microbes doing for sponges?

Some microbes house blue-green algae which probably provides sugar to the sponge. Some microbes may help defend the sponges from disease causing bacteria.

101

What are sponges doing for microbes?

Some sponges pass on microbes, like blue green algae, to offspring via sperm and eggs.

102

One species of Phylum _____ has been described?

Placozoa.

103

Placozoans are structurally _____ but genetically ____.

simple, complex

104

Where are plazoans placed on the phylogenetic tree?

between the sponges and cnidarians

105

Cnidarians are characterized by: (5)

radial symmetry, two tissue layers, tentacles around mouth, one opening for digestive system, cnidoblasts

106

What is a cidoblast?

a cell containing nematocysts

107

What is a cnidocyte?

a fully developed cnidoblast

108

What are the two body shapes of cnidarians?

polyp form and medusa form

109

The polyp form of cnidarians have a ____ body, ____ mouth, and are usually _____.

tubular, dorsal, stationary

110

The medusa form of cnidarians look like an _____ ____, they have a ____ mouth which means it is on the lower surface, and they usually _____.

upside-down cup, ventral, swim

111

Cnidarians are _____, meaning they have two definite tissue layers.

diploblastic

112

Amoebocytes are found in the ______. They are in things like _____, _____ and ____ _____, and ____ ____.

mesoglea, digestion, storing, moving nutrients, repairing wounds

113

____ were the first active predators.

Cnidarians

114

Cnidarians have two types of "muscle" cells. What are they? Why are they not true muscle cells?

epithelia and nutritive muscle, they are not from the mesoderm

115

Nutritive muscle can ____ ____ and are anchored in the ____.

capture food, mesoglea

116

Cnidarians get their name from specialized cells called _______. These contain stinging organelles called ____.

cnidoblasts, cnidae

117

What stimuli can trigger cnidoblasts? Modified cilia on the tigger, called _____, receive these stimuli.

chemical and physical, cnidocil

118

______ _______ is the force that causes a nematocyst to shoot a coiled, hollow thread to kill/capture prey.

Osmotic pressure

119

Class _____ are known as "true jellyfish."

Scyphozoa

120

Class Hydrozoa are considered to be _____ ____.

"other" jellyfish

121

Corals and sea anemones fall in to Class _____, while sea wasps fall into Class ______.

Anthozoa, Cubozoa

122

There are around _____ species in Phylum Cnidaria.

11,000

123

____% of all cnidarians are anthozoans and _____% are marine.

70, 99.8

124

Two additional Classes to Phylum Cnidaria are ______and _____.

Myxozoa & Staurozoa

125

Class Myxozoa has been added to Phylum Cnidaria fairly recently. This class has _____ species of parasites (mostly fish).

~2,000

126

Class Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) has _____ species and ____ % are marine, usually in _____ water.

a few hundred, 100, coastal

127

_____ is the dominate body form of Class Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

Medusa

128

Class Cubozoa is known as the _____ jellyfish because it is ____ shaped.

box, square

129

Molecular data indicates that Class _____ is probably the most advanced of all cnidarians.

Cubozoa

130

Class Hydrozoa is mostly ____ but has some ____ species.

marine, freshwater

131

Most species of Class _____ alternate between the polyp and medusa stages but some species have only one or the other. The ____ form is most often the dominate stage.

Hydrozoa, polyp

132

There are _______ species of Class Hydrozoa.

less than 3,000

133

Class Anthozoa has no _____ stage and they are all _____.

medusa, marine

134

In Class Anthozoa, the ____ form produces the eggs and sperm. A fertilized egg develops into a ______ which attaches to form a new polyp.

polyp, planula

135

In Class Anthozoa, ______ _____ divide the g-v cavity which increases surface area for digestion.

vertical partitions