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Flashcards in Lab Practical Exam I Deck (100)
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What are the main components of the Patellar Locking Mechanism?

1. Medial Ridge of the Femoral Trochlea
2. Patella
3. Quadriceps Femoris muscles
4. Medial Patellar Ligament
5. Lateral Patellar Ligament
6. Intermediate Patellar Ligament
7. Patellar Fibrocartilage


Which two joint capsules communicate directly 65% of the time?

Femoropatellar joint capsule and the Medial Femorotibial joint capsule


True/False: The proximal intertarsal joint and the distal intertarsal joint "always" communicate.

False. The Tibiotarsal (Tarsocrural) joint and the Proximal Intertarsal Joint "always" communicate

"Always" - Tibiotarsal joint (Tarsocrural) & Proximal Intertarsal joint
"Never" - Proximal Intertarsal joint & Distal Intertarsal joint
"Sometimes" - Distal Intertarsal joint & Tarsometatarsal joint


What is the vertebral formula for the canine/feline?

C7 - T13 - L7 - S3 - Cd20-23


What is the vertebral formula for equine?

C7 - T18 - L6 - S5 - Cd15-21


What is the vertebral formula for bovine?

C7 - T13 - L6 - S5 - Cd18-20


True/False. The Atlas contains a dens and articulates with the occipital condyles.

False. The Atlas (C1) not does contain a dens. The Axis (C2) is the one that contains the dens.


What characteristics distinguishes C7 from the other cervical vertebrae? (Hint: this allows us to determine the transition from cervical to thoracic vertebrae)

C7 is the only cervical vertebrae that does not have a transverse foramina and it has a high spinous process


Which ribs are considered the "true ribs" and where do they connect to?

1-9 and they connect to the sternum (vertebrosternal)


What do ribs 10-12 articulate with?

Cartilage of cranial rib (vertebrocartilaginous)


True/False. The heads of ribs 11-13 articulate with the caudal costal fovea of proceeding vertebrae.

False. They articulate with the same vertebrae - the cranial costal fovea


Which joint is considered the "yes" joint? The "no" joint?

Atlanto - occipital joint is the "yes" joint
Atlanto - axial joint is the "no" joint


What are the three ligaments of the dens and what do they do?

Alar ligament - attaches the dens to the occipital bone
Apical ligament - attaches the dens to the skull
Transverse atlantal ligament - holds dense against ventral arch


Which ligament connects the head of a rib to the head on the other side?

A. Costotransverse ligament
B. Intercapital ligament
C. Dorsal longitudinal ligament
D. Ventral longitudinal ligament

B. Intercapital ligament

- Costotransverse ligament: ribs to vertebrae

- Dorsal longitudinal ligament: on the dorsal surface of the bodies of the vertebrae (C2 to Cd1)

- Ventral longitudinal ligament: on the ventral surface of the bodies of the vertebrae (C2 to sacrum)


what is located in the cervical visceral space?

Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
Carotid Sheath- common carotid arteries, vagosympathetic trunks, and internal jugular veins


What are the borders of the carpal canal?

Dorsal: Palmar Carpal Ligament
Lateral: Accessory Carpal bone
Palmar: Palmar flexor retinaculum


What are the eight Extrinsic Muscles?

1. Superficial Pectorals
2. Deep Pectorals
3. Brachiocephalicus
4. Omotransversarius
5. Trapezius
6. Rhomboideus
7. Latissimus Dorsi
8. Serratus Ventralis


What is the name of the sleeve made by the tendon of the SDF where the tendon of the DDF passes at the level of the fetlock?

Flexor Manica


What is the name of the joint at the fetlock?

A. Carpometacaral joint
B. Intercarpal Joint
C. Metacarpophalangeal joint
D. Tibiotarsal joint

C. Metacarpophalangeal joint


What are the components of the Stay Apparatus?

1. Tendon of the Biceps Brachii muscle
2. Lacterus Fibrosus
3. Extensor Carpi Radialis muscle
4. Triceps brachii muscle
5. SDF and proximal check ligament
6. DDF and the distal check ligament
7. Common digital extensor tendon
8. Interosseus (medial and lateral extensor branches)
9. Proximal sesamoid bones and sesamoidean ligaments (cruciate, oblique, and straight)


What are the components of the Suspensory Apparatus?

1. Interosseus
2. Proximal Sesamoid bones
3. Sesamoidean ligaments (cruciate, oblique, and straight)
4. SDF and proximal check ligament
5. DDF and distal check ligament


Which are the three joints in the carpus ("knee") of the equine thoracic limb?

Radiocarpal Joint (Antebrachiocarpal Joint)
Midcarpal Joint
Carpometacarpal Joint


What is the name for the elbow joint?

Humeroradioulnar Joint


What is the name of the muscle that gives the horse's shoulder a smooth round appearance?

A. Sternomandibularis muscle
B. Sternohyoideus muscle
C. Subscapularis muscle
D. Subclavius muscle

D. Subclavius muscle


What muscles form the ventral and dorsal border of the jugular groove in the horse?

Ventral border: Sternomandibularis muscle
Dorsal border: Brachiocephalicus muscle


What two joints in the equine thoracic limb communicate?

Midcarpal joint and the Carpometacarpal joint


True/False. The Chestnut in the equine is equivalent to the metacarpal pad of the dog.

False. The Chestnut is equivalent to the carpal pad of the dog. The Ergot is equivalent to the metacarpal pad of the dog.


Name the three germinal tissues of the hoof.

1. Perioplic Corium
2. Coronary Corium
3. Laminar Corium (sensitive/dermal lamina and insensitive/epidermal lamina)


Which bones are considered the splint bones and which is the cannon bone?

Metacarpal II and IV are the splint bones
Metacarpal III is the cannon bone


True/False. Synarthroses is a semimovable joint and Amphiarthroses is a freely moveable joint.

False: Synarthrosis = immovable joints
Amphiarthroses = semimovable joints
Diarthroses = Freely moveable joints