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Flashcards in Language Deck (44)
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1

oral messages- powerful language seen as more persuasive than powerless Written messages- no difference in persuasiveness between powerful and powerless language

sparks et al 1998

2

Parton et al 2002

Use of hedges and hesitations in employment interviews- powerless language- they seem less competent and employable

3

Swearing, emotion-laiden items, metaphor

Examples of intense langauge

4

teachers who used powerless language were viewed as less dynamic and credible

Haleta 1996

5

Blankenship and Craig 2007

tag questions are more powerful when used by high credibility speaker

6

Bradac et al 1980

Reinforcement Theory. Positive evaluation if already well-disposed to position advocated. Intense language can enhance this effect.

7

research- decision had to be made about new assessment at uni- the member who used more powerful language in email saying their opinion was seen as more attractive, credible, and persuasive; their points were taken

Adkins and Brashers 1995

8

hesitations/ hedges/ intensifiers/ polite forms/m tag questions/ disclaimers/ deictic phrases

types of powerless language

9

tag questions are more powerful when used by high credibility speaker

Blankenship and Craig 2007

10

Information processing theory- language intensity makes the persuader's position seem more extreme compared to our own position (even if it isn't) -To be persuaded we attend to the message, compare it to our own position, and then accept or reject it

Hamilton and Stewart 1995

11

Haleta 1996

teachers who used powerless language were viewed as less dynamic and credible

12

Language expectancy theory

we have expectations about what is normal language behaviour when trying to persuade other people. Violation of these expectations can help or harm the effectiveness of these messages depending on the credibility of the source

13

Reinforcement Theory. Positive evaluation if already well-disposed to position advocated. Intense language can enhance this effect.

Bradac et al 1980

14

Adkins and Brashers 1995

research- decision had to be made about new assessment at uni- the member who used more powerful language in email saying their opinion was seen as more attractive, credible, and persuasive; their points were taken

15

linked with credibility- vividness can increase powerfulness if from a credible source

Andreoli and Worchel 1978

16

Most studies lump together powerless language features

Problem with many studies

17

Problem with many studies

Most studies lump together powerless language features

18

Communication accommodation theory- more persuasive and credible when speaker uses the same features as addressee

Aune and Kikuchi 1993

19

Use of hedges and hesitations in employment interviews- powerless language- they seem less competent and employable

Parton et al 2002

20

Positive evaluation if already well-disposed to position advocated. Intense language can enhance this effect.

Reinforcement Theory.

21

more persuasive and credible when speaker uses the same features as addressee

Communication accommodation theory

22

Burgoon 1995

Language expectancy theory- we have expectations about what is normal language behaviour when trying to persuade other people. Violation of these expectations can help or harm the effectiveness of these messages depending on the credibility of the source

23

females were more persuasive with males when they used powerless forms of speech females were more persuasive with other females when they used powerful speech males with males- speech style made less/no difference

Carli 1990

24

Language expectancy theory- we have expectations about what is normal language behaviour when trying to persuade other people. Violation of these expectations can help or harm the effectiveness of these messages depending on the credibility of the source

Burgoon 1995

25

Bostrom 1973

greater attitude change can occur if communicator is female using a religious/excretory/ or sexual profanity than a male -using profanity makes you less credible

26

uses a wheelchair- PC handicapable- heroic confined to a wheelchair- disables abnormal- pathetic

scale of PC language

27

Hamilton and Stewart 1995

Information processing theory- language intensity makes the persuader's position seem more extreme compared to our own position (even if it isn't) -To be persuaded we attend to the message, compare it to our own position, and then accept or reject it

28

Information processing theory

language intensity makes the persuader's position seem more extreme compared to our own position (even if it isn't) -To be persuaded we attend to the message, compare it to our own position, and then accept or reject it

29

greater attitude change can occur if communicator is female using a religious/excretory/ or sexual profanity than a male -using profanity makes you less credible

Bostrom 1973

30

Reinforcement Theory.

Positive evaluation if already well-disposed to position advocated. Intense language can enhance this effect.