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Flashcards in sequential persuasion Deck (40)
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1

why does lowballing work? cialdini 1978

cognitive commitment has already been made and is hard to change.

2

light next to dark gets lighter (door in the face)(thats not all)

perceptual contrast effect, cialdini 1994

3

Pregiving, Groves et al 1992

must be seen as a favour in order to work in an effective way

4

foot in the mouth, Howard 1990

e.g. fundraising context - first ask how they are feeling - second, when they say they're feeling good, say you're glad that they're feeling good -- they're more likely to donate money to people who aren't feeling as good as you

5

1) asked students to participate in thinking experiment that starts at 7am, 31% agreed 2) others only told about the 7am start after they had agreed to participate

Lowball, cialdini et al 1978 test

6

1st ask students if they would spend 15 hours /week tutoring children 2nd- when 1st is rejects, then ask if they would spend an afternoon taking the kid to a museum/cinema

Door in the face, O'Keefe and Hale 1998 test

7

self presentation, pendleton botson 1979

internalised standards- want to present a good self image (door in the face)

8

perceptual contrast effect, cialdini 1994

light next to dark gets lighter (door in the face)(thats not all)

9

when does door in the face work?

1st request not too large or too small -better with pro-social causes ]-brief time gap between two requests -requests made by same person or group -exchange orientated people

10

3 changes need to be brought about in a persuadee - activation of an attitude (caused by smaller request) -make sure persuadee sees 2nd request is linked with same attitude -make sure persuadee feels that there are social norms operating (not to comply would be unreasonable) -not necessary for 2nd request to be made by same person -must be no external inducements to comply with first request -initial request not too large, not too small

Foot in the door, Gorasina and Olson 1995

11

door in the face, definition

start with large request and follow with smaller request

12

Foot in the door, Freedman and Fraser 1966

signs outside houses- first group 83% refused, second group had already agreed to smaller request 2 weeks prior, only 24% refused

13

cognitive commitment has already been made and is hard to change.

why does lowballing work? cialdini 1978

14

Fear then relief- polinski and nawrat 1998

-researchers placed piece of paper behind a car's windscreen wiper, resembling a parking ticket -car owners returning to car experienced fear/ anxiety - paper was in fact an appeal for blood donations- fear was replaced with relief -researcher then asked if they would fill in a questionnaire- most agreed -BECAUSE relief becomes associated with 2nd request. also leads to temporary mindlessness- they are distracted, less attentive and more susceptible

15

Pregiving, cialdini 1994

effectiveness based on 'norm of reciprocity'- we should try to repay in kind what another person has provided for us

16

- got students to sign up for interesting and paid experiment. when they came they were told it had been cancelled and were offered a less interesting and unpaid experiment- majority agreed.

Bait and switch, Joule et al 1989

17

start with large request and follow with smaller request

door in the face, definition

18

Lowball, cialdini et al 1978 test

1) asked students to participate in thinking experiment that starts at 7am, 31% agreed 2) others only told about the 7am start after they had agreed to participate 

19

Disrupt then reframe- knowles et al 2001

door to door selling xmas cards, saying the money would go to charity- true -group 1 told "cards were $3" -group 2 told "cards were $3, its a bargain" -group 3 told "cards were 300 pennies, thats $3, its a bargain 65% of purchasers were from group 3

20

Lowball definition

original offer looks too good to be true, and is

21

Thats not all- Burger 1986

customers ask about the price of a cake -1st group are told the cake and two smaller cakes cost 75 cents all together -2nd group told the cake is 75 cents but the other 2 are thrown in for free -- improving the deal AFTER telling them the price increases compliance Works because of perceptual contract and norm of reciprocity

22

effectiveness based on 'norm of reciprocity'- we should try to repay in kind what another person has provided for us

Pregiving, cialdini 1994

23

original offer looks too good to be true, and is

Lowball definition

24

Why does door in the face work?

Cialdini 1994- perceptual contrast effect, light next to dark, seems lighter. Cialdini 1975- reciprocal concession, negative returned with a negative Pendleton and Botson, "self presentation"- maintaining a self image-- internalised standards are maintained. guilt is reduced. Tuscing and dillard 2000- social responsibility- due to internalised standard. ----- awareness that s/he has failed to behave in accordance with standard- 2nd request offers a way out

25

internalised standards- want to present a good self image (door in the face)

self presentation, pendleton botson 1979

26

pregiving must be seen as a favour in order to work in an effective way

Pregiving, Groves et al 1992

27

customers ask about the price of a cake -1st group are told the cake and two smaller cakes cost 75 cents all together -2nd group told the cake is 75 cents but the other 2 are thrown in for free -- improving the deal AFTER telling them the price increases compliance Works because of perceptual contract and norm of reciprocity

Thats not all- Burger 1986

28

Bait and switch, Joule et al 1989

- got students to sign up for interesting and paid experiment. when they came they were told it had been cancelled and were offered a less interesting and unpaid experiment- majority agreed.

29

Door in the face, O'Keefe and Hale 1998 test

1st ask students if they would spend 15 hours /week tutoring children 2nd- when 1st is rejects, then ask if they would spend an afternoon taking the kid to a museum/cinema

30

signs outside houses- first group 83% refused, second group had already agreed to smaller request 2 weeks prior, only 24% refused

Foot in the door, Freedman and Fraser 1966