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Juliet's Psych GRE > Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language Deck (18)
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1

Phonemes

smallest measure of language. discreet sounds that make up words, but carry no meaning. (p, or sh)

2

Morphemes

made up of phonemes, smallest unit of meaning (ex -ing)

3

Morphology

grammar rules; how to group morphemes

4

Prosody

tone inflection, accent, and other aspects of pronunciation that carry meaning

5

Noam Chomsky

developed transformational grammar, which differentiates between surface structure and deep structure. Language Acquisition Device theory

6

Surface structure

the way that words are organized in the sentence (ex. I studied the material for hours vs. For hours, I studied the material)

7

Deep structure

the underlying meaning of sentences

8

Language Acquisition Device

Theory by Chomsky that we have an innate device to develop language.

9

Overregularization

over-application of grammar rule (ex I runned to the store)

10

Overextension

generalizing with names of things (child calling everything furry a dog)

11

Telegraphic speech

speech without articles or extras, like in a telegram (ex. me go)

12

Holophrastic speech

When a child uses 1 word (holophrase) to convey a whole sentence

13

Whorfian hypothesis

culture influences speech and we can only name what we have experienced

14

Roger Brown

Children's understanding of grammatical rules develops when they make hypotheses about syntax and then self-correct

15

Katherine Nelson

language really develops with onset of active speech, not during first year of listening

16

William Labov

studied Ebonics and found that it had its own complex structure

17

Lee Vygotsky and Alexander Luria

language is a tool involved in the development of abstract thinking. Development of word meanings is complex and altered by interpersonal experience

18

Charles Osgood

created semantic differential charts which allowed people to plot the meaning of words on charts. Found that people form similar backgrounds plotted words similarly--important connotations of words