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Juliet's Psych GRE > Thinking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thinking Deck (22)
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1

Convergent thinking

Type of thinking used to find the one solution to a problem, like a math problem

2

Divergent thinking

Type of thinking used when more than one possibility exists in a situation, like chess or creative thinking

3

JP Guilford

defined convergent and divergent thinking

4

Functional fixedness

Idea that people develop closed minds about the functions of certain objects

5

Algorithms

Problem solving strategies that consider every possible solution and eventually hit on the correct solution; time consuming

6

Heuristics

Problem-solving strategies that use rule of thumb or shortcuts based on what has worked in the past. Cannot guarantee a solution but is faster than an algorithm

7

Mediation

Intervening mental process that occurs between stimulus and response. Reminds us what to do or how to respond based on ideas or past learning

8

Allen Newell and Herbert Simon

Introduced first computer simulation model designed to solve problems as humans do. V1 called logic theorist, V2 called general problem solver

9

Deductive reasoning

leads to a specific conclusion that must follow given the information provided

10

Inductive reasoning

Leads to general rules that are inferred from specifics

11

Atmosphere effect

When a conclusion is influenced by the way information is presented

12

Semantic effect

Believing a conclusion based on what you think is correct rather than based on logic from given information

13

Confirmation bias

Remembering and using information that confirms what you already think

14

Elizabeth Loftus and Allan Collins

People have heirarchical semantic networks that group together related items in memory. When items are closely related, they are located closer in the heirarchy, and can be quickly linked together

15

Allan Collins and Ross Quillian

Parallel Distributive Processing/Connectionism-- people determine relationship between two items by searching cognitive semantic heirarchy

16

Bottom-Up processing

Recognizing an item or pattern from data or details (Data driven)

17

Top down processing

Opposed to bottom-up; driven by larger concepts not data

18

Automatic processing

task is done effortlessly because it's subsumed under a higher organization process

19

Saccades

Eye movements from one fixation point to another

20

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

Physiological, bodily reaction to situations comes first and causes emotions. We feel scared because we are trembling

21

Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

AKA Emergency theory. Emotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously.

22

Schachter-Singer theory of emotion

AKA Cognitive theory. Similar to James Lange in that emotions are the product of physiological reactions. But mental processes are in the middle. Physiological state-->mental interpretation-->emotion. Ex. We tremble in a situation and then feel either fear or anger depending on situational cues