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Juliet's Psych GRE > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (40)
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1

Stages of memory

sensory, short term, long term

2

Sensory memory

lasts for only seconds; connection between perception and memory. Iconic and echoic

3

George Sperling

Studied iconic memory and found that people can see more than they can remember. Shown series of letters like : GRXP ILTH and told to write it won. Could do first line and then forgot second while writing first

4

Iconic memory

sensory memory of vision

5

Ulric Neisser

Coined the term icon for brief visual memory. Icon memory lasts for about 1 second. Found that bright light or new pattern can erase original image

6

Backward masking

Presentation of bright light or new image after original image that interferes with visual memory. more successful if mask is similar to original stimulus

7

Echoic memory

sensory memory for auditory sesations

8

Short term memory

Lasts for seconds or minutes; capacity of about 7 items. Largely auditory--items encoded phonologically

9

Working memory

temporary memory that is needed to perform the task that someone is working on at that moment

10

George Miller

found that STM has a capacity of about 7 items (+/- 2 items)

11

Chunking

grouping items. Can increase the capacity of STM

12

Primary (maintenance) rehearsal

Repeating material in order to hold it in short term memory

13

Secondary (elaborative) rehearsal

Organizing and understanding material in order to transfer it to long term memory

14

Proactive interference

When information that is disruptive to new learning was learned prior to new items

15

Retroactive interference

When disruptive information is presented after new learning. Causes retroactive inhibitions

16

Long term memory

Capable of permanent retention. Most items learned semantically, for meaning.

17

Savings

measures how much information about a subject remains in long term memory by assessing how long it takes to learning something the second time instead of the first

18

Encoding specificity principle

material is more likely to be remembered if it is retrieved in the same context in which it was stored. Applies to Long Term memory

19

Episodic memory

details, events, and discrete knowledge

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semantic memroy

general knowledge of the world

21

Procedural memory

knowing "how to" do something. Ride a bike

22

Declarative memory

knowing a fact

23

Explicit memory

knowing something and being consciously aware of the fact that it is known

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implicit memory

knowing something without being aware of knowing it

25

Hermann Ebbinghaus

1st to study memory systematically. Developed "forgetting curve" that depicts sharp drop in savings immediately after learning, then levels off

26

Frank Bartlett

Found that memory is reconstructive rather than rote. People are more likely to remember the idea of a story than details or grammar

27

Allan Paivio

dual code hypothesis--items will be better remembered if they are encoded visually (icons/imagery) and semantically (understanding)

28

Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart

learning and recall depend on the depth of processing. Different levels of processing from superficial phonological to deep semantic. Deeper processing is more likely to be remembered.

29

Elizabeth Loftus

memory of traumatic events can be altered by presentation of questions

30

Karl Lashley

most memories are stored diffusely in the brain