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Juliet's Psych GRE > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (28)
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1

First psychology textbook

Thorndike

2

Herman Ebbinghaus

learning curve. When learning something new, the rate of learning changes over time. Significant initial learning slows to lower rate later

3

M.E. Olds

Studied electrical stimulation of pleasure centers in brain caused animals to perform behaviors to receive the stimulation. Supports drive reduction theory

4

Law of effect

Thorndike's precursor to operant conditioning. People do what rewards them and stop doing what doesn't

5

Kurt Lewin

Theory of association--before behariovirism. Grouping things together based on the fact that they occur together in time and space (rewards with cues)

6

John Watson

founder of the school of behaviorism. Objective and observable elements are all that's relevant to psych

7

B.F.Skinner

1st experiments to prove Thorndike and Watson--Skinner box

8

Continuous reinforcement schedule

every correct response met with reward. Quickest path to learning but fragile to extinction

9

Partial reinforcement schedule

not all correct responses reinforced--either time (interval) or number (ratio) based

10

Fixed ratio

partial reinforcement schedule based on a fixed number of correct responses (Every 6th response). Prone to extinction because known when to expect reward

11

Variable ratio

partial reinforcement schedule based on a varying number of responses (slot machines). Very strong learning

12

Fixed interval

partial reinforcement schedule based on set amount of time. First correct response after set time is rewarded

13

Variable interval

partial reinforcement schedule based on varying amounts of time. Extremely unpredictable

14

Fritz Heider's balance theory

homeostasis theory--trying to get to stable psychology or physiological state

15

Osgood & Tannenbaum congruity theory

homeostasis theory--trying to get to stable psychology or physiological state

16

Leon Festinger

cognitive dissonance--homeostasis theory--trying to get to stable psychology or physiological state

17

Drive reduction theories

people are motivated by desire to reduce drives (drive for hunger, sex, thirst, etc)

18

Clark Hull

performance = drive X habit, 1st motivated by drive, then by memory of old successful habits. Will do what has worked before

19

Edward Tolman

Performance = expectation X value, "expectancy value theory". motivated by goals that we might actually meet

20

Premack principle

We motivate ourselves to do what we don't want to do by rewarding ourselves

21

Donald Hebb

arousal is necessary and beneficial to performance (led to Yerkes Dodson performance curve)

22

overshadowing

classical conditioning principle that we can't infer a relationship when a more prominent stimulus is present

23

Albert Bandura

social learning theory; modeling; Bobo doll study

24

John Garcia, "Garcia effect"

we are primed to make certain connections, i.e. nausea and food

25

Murray & McCelland

Stuidied possibility that people are motivated by a need for achievement (nAch).

26

John Atkinson

theory of motivation in which people who set realistic goals with medium risk feel pride and want to succeed more than they fear failure. but they're unlikely to set unrealistic goals

27

Neil Miller

approach-avoidance conflict: state in which one feels that a certain goal has pros and cons. When far from the goal, focus on pros; when closer, focus on cons

28

Positive transfer/negative transfer

previous learning that makes it easier or more difficult to learn another task later