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Flashcards in Language Deck (16):
1

Linguistics

characterizing structure of language

2

Psycholinguistics

  • How humans acquire, use, comprehend & produce language
  • merging of linguistics and psych
  • Productivity and Regularity
  • Competence and Performance
  • Relationship between language and thought

3

Productivity

an infinite number of sentences are possible in any languages

4

Regularity across language

for all languages there is a systematic structure:

  • rules of grammar= rules that account for sentence productivity and regularity
  • 3 levels of analysis= phonology, syntax, semantics

5

Syntax

  • rules for determining word ordering in phrases and sentences
  • Subject, Verb, Object
  • rules for forming past tense and plurals (infections) 

6

Semantics

  • rules for accessing/combining word meanings into a sensible meaningful whole
  • ex) Little children sleep peacefully.

7

Competence

  • knowledge of the "rules" which linguists identify

8

Performance

  • applying knowledge when speaking and listening
  • psycholinguists develop theories that account for mental application of rules (DVs= errors, reading times)

9

Relationship between language and thought (2 theories)

Linguistic Determinism: Language shapes the way we think and precieve 

  • Eskimos are native to snowy environments so thay have 15 differerent words for snow. English speaks have 1. Do english speakers precieve snow differently?

Aristotle: Thought shapes language

  • Language arose as a tool for communicating thought
  • similarities in structure across different languages
  • language universals

10

Language Universals

Statistical and Absolute features

11

Statisitcal Features

features found in many but not all languages

  • Subject precedes Object

12

Absolute Language Features

features found in ALL languages

  • productivity, regularity, arbitrariness, flexibility, displacement, interchangability

13

Arbitrary Features

Arbitrary= no inherent connection between words and their meaning; we need to learn these connections

  • Exception= onomonopeia

14

Flexibility Features

Flexibility= we assign names for everything, and we sometimes change meanings to keep up with the times

  • Google, computer, "mouth bling"

15

Displacement Features

We can talk about things that happened inthe past and future

 

16

Interchangeability

  • all humans, male or female, can produce an infinite number of words