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Flashcards in Long Term Memory Deck (19):

How do you retrieve info from LTM?

  • info in WM primes related concepts from LTM
  • Bread > Butter


Activation Calculations

  • Activation (Ai)= probability and speed of access to info in memory
  • Ai= Bi + EWxSxi
  • Bi= Baseline
  • Wx=Weight of Prime
  • Sxi= Associative strength between prime and target
  • Bread=Prime
  • Butter= Target
  • Need frequency of butter


Priming Tasks

  • Are both word strings words?
  • Bird-Canary
  • Band-Turkey
  • Judgement times are faster for related pairs


Define Retrieval Failures

  • We are unable to retrieve info that was previously transferred to LTM


Encoding Failures

  • Info was not transferred to LTM (inattentive blindness)


Retrieval Failure Theories

  • Decay
  • Interference
  • retrieval cues are insufficient or inappropriate


What are examples of memory distortions?

  • source monitoring errors
  • reconstruction errors
  • misinformation


What are source monitoring errors?

  • source of memory is atrributed to wrong time, place, people, etc.


What are reconstruction errors?

  • retrieving incorrect details
  • ex) office schema: recalling that a stapler was in a pic of an office when it wasn't.



  • misleading post event info disrupts or biases memory
  • evidence with kids and adults


Doctor Study (Bruck et al 1995)

  • Dr provides exam and leaves then assistant comes in and chat with kid about poster, 5 mins later Dr comes in and gives shot.
  • 1 year later, NEW assistant visits homes and gives a neutral reminder "someone gave you a shot, someone chatted about poster" or misleading reminder "assistant gave shot, Dr talked about poster"
  • in misleading condition after final visitation, 1/2 of children reported shot given by assistant


Car Accident Study (Loftus and Palmer 1974)

  • Ps watched video of car accident
  • After viewing asked: How fast were the cars going when they HIT, CRASHED, BUMPED, COLLIDED, etc
  • IV= Verb type
  • smashed=41
  • collided=39
  • bumped=38
  • hit=34
  • 1 wk later " did you see any broken glass?"
  • yes response depended on IV


Why does monitoring Errors occurr?

  • Retroactive Intereference
  • Misinformation acceptance


Reroactive Interference

both memories exist, misleading new info overshadows original info


Misinformation Acceptance

  • accept misleading info as having been part of the even with both
  • expect stronger misinfo effects when orginal memory trace is weaker


Explicit Memory

Facts and events


Implicit Memory


  • E.g., procedural knowledge, motor skills
  • Can influence performance on a task even w/out conscious awareness


Henry Gustav Molaison (HM)

  • Surgery rendered his hippocampus nonfunctional
  • Initial diagnosis: Anterograde amnesia-old memories intact, but could not form new ones
  • Challenged by later evidence from implicit tasks (Mirror drawing task; Tower of Hanoi)
  • We've learned that PKM zeta allows us to store info in LTM.
  • the zip enzyme counteracts PKM zeta