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Flashcards in Sensory and Perception Deck (30):
1

Neurons

  • recieve and transmit info
  • electromagnetic activity

2

How are stimuli from environment represented via neuronal activity in the nervous system?

  • vision-occipital lobe
  • Hubel and Wiesel

3

Specificity Coding

  • a person's face is represented by one neuron, which fires to that face ONLY

4

Distributed Coding

  • a person's face is represented by a group of neurons

5

Frontal Lobe

  • higher level functioning
  • planning
  • speech

6

Temporal

  • language comprehension
  • memory recognition
  • object recognition

7

Parietal

  • attention
  • spatial processing

8

Stripe-rearing kittens experiment

  • born and put into 2 different groups (experimental vs control)
  • experimental condition is room with vertical stripes only
  • control is normal environment
  • in test phase, control kittens react to all angled stripes
  • experimental react on mostly only vertical stripes
  • EXPERIENCE IS CRITICAL TO DEVELOPMENT

9

Experience-dependence plasticity in humans

  • fusiform face area (temporal)
  • Ps shown greebles and were ttrained in greeble recognition
  • then performed name verification task while activity in FFA was measured and compared before and after training
  • before= more activation for faces
  • after= similar activation for both
  • YES we can alter the response of neurons in FFA

10

Pupil

controls amount of light that enters our eyes

11

Name some primary receptor cells

  • ganglion cells, bipolar cells, rods, cones

12

Rods

  • responsible for peripheral vision
  • 130 million
  • black and white vision
  • outside of fovea
  • sesitive to all wavelengths

13

Cones

  • foveal vision
  • 7 million
  • in center of retina
  • color vision
  • visual acuity

14

Bipolar cells

  • relay stations
  • communicate message from cones and rods to ganglion cells

15

Ganglion cells

  • transmit info from bipolar cells to rest of brain
  • via optic nerve
  • 800,000 in each eye

16

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

  • object recognition

17

Superior Colliculous

  • locating objects in space

18

Where pathway

PARIETAL

19

What pathway

  • TEMPORAL

20

Why does the brain recieve a partially "summarized" record of the original stimulus

  • light travels through the vitreous humour and becomes scattered
  • only a small portion of primary receptors have their own private "pipeline" to the brain
  • each eye has a lind spot (no rods or cones)

21

Template Matching Theory

  • a visual stimulus is compared to specific templates in memory
  • identiy is determined by which template has the most overlap

22

What's wrong with the template matching theory?

  • how can we recognize things with so much variability?
  • realistically we would need to learn and store a huge number of templates in memory
  • this would be very time consuming and impractical!

23

Template Matching with Machines

  • UPS created the first machine to read handwritten addresses
  • it reject 85% of the envelopes

24

Feature Analysis Theories

  • takes into account specific combos of basic features
  • pandemonium
  • recognition by components

25

Pandemonium

  • mental demon shouts up towards higher stages
  • image demon
  • feature demon
  • cognitive demon
  • decision demon
  • shouts=mental activity/recognition

26

Image demon

  • detects a neural signal from sensory cells up 1 layer to feature demons

27

feature demons

  • 28 demons
  • each compares itself to info from the stage beneath
  • if it matches it will shout because its present in the stimulus

28

Cognitive demons

  • shout the ludest and hears the most shouting from feature demons

29

decision demon

  • identifies the pattern by hearing which cognitive demon shouts the loudest

30

Recognition by components theory

  • simple combos of basic features
  • 3d shapes = geons
  • paired visual stimuli with geons
  • expect failure when geons are removed than when segments of geons are removed
  • pattern of error depends on exposure time
  • WEAKNESS- do not take into account the effect of context on pattern recognition