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Flashcards in Language of malignancy Deck (38):
1

Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number
Needs a stimulus and will stop when stimulus is withdrawn
continuous stimulus increases chance of malignancy

2

Examples of hyperplasia

Inner lining of uterus- hyperplasia during mensuration due to hormonal stimulus

Liver regenerating after resection

When you're unable to produce sperm for prostate hyperplasia occurs to increase hormones and try to trigger cell production

3

What is hypertrophy

Increase in cell size
more organelles in cytoplasm ect.

4

Examples of hypertrophy

Skeletal muscle- increased muscle due to increased use

Cardiac muscle - left ventricular hypertrophy

5

What causes left ventricular hypertrophy

Increased peripheral vascular resistance causes and increase in after load meaning the heart has to work harder to pump blood so the cardiac muscle undergoes hypertrophy

6

What is hypertrophic obstructive hypertrophy

Not true hypertrophy
Genetic disorder
Cardiac muscle keeps getting bigger

7

What can left ventricular hypertrophy lead to

Heart failure
Arrhythmia and sudden death

8

What is atrophy

Decrease in cell size/number
occurs with withdrawal of stimulus
Hormonal or mechanical

9

What causes asymmetrical atrophy in the middle of normal skeletal muscle

nerve damage

10

What is metaplasia

A change from one mature cell type to another

Reversible

11

Example of metaplasia

Barrets oesophagus

Change from squamous epithelium to intestinal type columnar epithelium

Change from ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium from cigarette smoke

12

Which is more associated with malignancy, hyperplasia or metaplasia

Metaplasia - higher risk

Hyperplasia - low risk

13

What puts barret's oesophagus at even higher risk of malignancy

Dysplasia

14

Why do you get squamous cell carcinomas in the lung when there isn't any squamous cells in the lungs

Because there is metaplasia in response to cigarette smoke from ciliated columnar to squamous

15

How do identify columnar epithelium

Cells look like columns

16

What does barret's oesophagus look like histologically

Columnar epithelium with goblet cells underneath

17

What does stratified squamous epithelium look like histologically

lots of layers

18

what kind of cells line everything shiny which is exposed to external environment

Stratified squamous epithelium

19

What is neoplasia

New growth without a stimulus
Can be benign, premalignant or malignant

20

What is dysplasia

disordered growth

21

Why isn't dysplasia malignant

Because it is pre-malignant

22

What is malignancy

new growth that invades another structure

or new growth that has metastatic potential

23

Example of benign neoplastic growth

Small carcinoid tumours in the lungs

non malignant skin cancer (squamous papilloma) - only taken off for aesthetic purposes

24

How do you treat carcinoma in situ

Not metastatic- not spread anywhere

Just chop it out

25

Is situ disease malignant

No

26

What does stellate opacity within the right upper lobe mean

Starlike mass that is dancer than air
Not benign as if it is benign it is usually round

27

What does diffusely firm suggest

Inflammation
Infection
Deficiency

28

What is a cyst

thin walled round structure, has to be lined by epithelium

29

What is a pseudocyst

Looks like a cyst but not incapsulated by epithelium

30

What do pseudocysts on the pancreas mean

Chronic pancreatitis

31

What causes necrosis in pancreatitis

Pancreatic enzymes activated and released in the pancreas degrading the pancreas

32

What are the causes of chronic pancreatitis

Recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis

33

What is I GET SMASHED

Causes of acute pancreatitis
Idiopathic
gallstones
ethanol
trauma
steriods
mumps
autoimmune
scorpion bites
hypercalcaemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperparathyroid hormone
ERCP
Drugs

34

Partial gastrectomy contains an 18 mm ulcerated area within the lesser curve. Ulcer is shallow and has heaped up rolled edges

Gatric cancer

Poorly defined shallow ulcer with HEAPED UP ROLLED EDGES means cancer

35

What do inflammatory ulcers look like

Punched out, well defined

36

High nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear cytoplasmic ratio with irregular nuclear contours and obvious pleomorphism. Occasional tripolar mitoses are seen. Evidence of intracellular mucin

Adenocarcinoma

Cancer of goblet cells

37

What is mucin secreted by

glandular cells

38

What are signet rings

Nucleus pushed to the side of cell due to mucin being produced

ADENOCARCINOMA