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Flashcards in League of Nations Deck (33):
1

Explain Teschen

1920
Poland and Czechoslovakia fought over this area
Area was split and fighting ended, although they weren't happy

2

What were the main situations that the League had to deal with before the Wall Street crash?

Teschen 1920
Vilna 1920
Upper Silesia 1921
Aaland Islands 1921
Memel 1923
Corfu 1923
Iraq 1924
Bulgaria 1925
Locarno 1925
Bolivia 1928

3

Explain Vilna briefly

1920
Polish army occupied Vilna (capital of Lithuania)
League asked Poland to withdrawal, they didn't
No further action was taken

4

Explain upper Silesia briefly

1921
Germany and Poland both wanted control
Region was divided between them

5

Explain Aaland islands briefly

1921
Sweden and Finland both wanted control
Islands went to Finland

6

Explain Corfu briefly

1923
Tellini was sorting out Greece/Albania boundaries and was murdered
Mussolini demanded compensation and execution of murderers
Mussolini attacked and occupied Corfu
Greece were made to pay compensation

7

Explain Bulgaria briefly

1925
Greek soldiers killed by Bulgarian soldiers
Greek troops invaded
Greece made to pay compensation again

8

Explain Locarno briefly

1925
There were unresolved borders between Belgium/France
In Locarno, Switzerland they agreed on
Borders
Britain and Italy protect France
France and Germany to settle disputes through LON
It was agreed that the Rhineland would remain a demilitarized zone

9

Explain Kellogg- Briand pact briefly

1928
Pact stated that war was not a solution to disputes
Armies were agreed to be used for self defence only

10

What was the point of inevitable failure for the LON? What happened?

Wall Street crash 1929 (USA recalled loans + refused to negotiate)
1. European industries collapsed
2. Unemployment rockets
3. Very little international trade
4. Limited profits
repeat steps 1-4

11

When was the league the most successful and why?

1920s
The Dawes Plan, The Young Plan, the economic boom

12

What was the result of the USA giving loans to Europe (Dawes Plan/ Young Plan)

1. industry develops
2. employment goes up
3. lots of international trade
4. huge profits
repeat steps 1-4

13

Why did Germany become stronger?

The Dawes plan helped lower the effect of war punishment

14

What agreement did Germany and Britain make about the navy?

The Anglo-German naval agreement
Fixed size of German navy at 35% of Britain's
Allowed submarines

15

What sanctions were gave to Italy and why weren't they effective?

Banned loans to Italy and imports from Italy
Banned exports of rubber, tin and other metals
They did not ban oil immediately - big mistake
Suez Canal was not closed either

16

Who was forced into exile during the Abyssinian invasion?

Haile Selassie, Abyssinian emperor

17

What pact was between Italy France and Britain?

The Stresa pact, which united them against Germany

18

Effect of Wall Street crash on Japan?

USA stopped trading
Japanese economy collapsed - government couldn't feed people + needed a change

19

What secret pact was attempted between British and French politicians?

The hoare-laval pact, planning to give two thirds of Abyssinia to Italy to keep Mussolini happy

20

Describe German rearmament

Hitler withdrew from disarmament conference
German general, von Fritsch, ordered to make strong forces
Tanks, aircraft, warships were made

21

What two plans lowered German reparations?

The Dawes plan
The Young plan

22

How many Germans were unemployed during the height of the economic crisis?

One fifth

23

Aims // problems with League of Nations (at the very beginning)

1. Promote peace // conflicting views
2. Encourage disarmament // trust issues
3. Ensure countires' borders are respected // not guaranteed
4. League will take action as one body in the event of war // hard to organise + agree
5. In case of disagreement League members will submit case for League judgement // conflict
6. Establish a Permanent Court of National Justice // Can't enforce
7. In case of an aggressor, all League members will cut country off politically + economically // USA + USSR not in LON, negative effect on trade
8. No secret treaties // no way of knowing lol they're secret

24

Roles within the League?

-SECRETARIAT: Group of officials worked in Geneva at LON headquarters (Switzerland is neutral)
ASSEMBLY: Representative of each member sent to the Assembly at least once a year (so its fair)
COUNCIL: consisted of Britain, France, Italy and Japan, they made decisions that had to be carried out by all member-states (more powerful than Assembley)
COMMISSIONS: set up to deal with specific problems (e.g. disarmament/madates in Turkey/Health organisation)

25

Why did the USA not want to join the LON? (5)

1. Wanted to stay isolated from European politics after WW1
2. Not prepared to disarm or enter trade embargoes (stop trade)
3. Public thought Treaty was too harsh
4. Large immigrant population resented uropean affairs
5. The USA had become politically isolationist: The US senate resented the TofV and the LON

26

What were the weaknesses of the League?

1. Non-European powers resented European influence in the Council
2. Absence of powerful countries (USSR, USA, Germany)
3. Dominated by conflicting Britain and France
4. League sanctions were quite tame
(moral sanctions = meaningless, economic sanctions = USA, USSR, Ger not members, Military sanctions = no League army)

27

What was the Dawes plan?
What were the consequences of the Dawes plan?

Level of German payments lowered
2 year freeze on reparation payments
USA offered huge loans to Germany
French agreed to get their forces out of the Ruhr

Germans payed $1 billion over 5 years
Germany did very well (new factories etc)
TofV altered to Germany's favour

28

What was the Young Plan?

1929- considerably lowered Germany's reparations

29

Explain the Ruhr crisis

11th january 1923
France invaded Ruhr when reparations couldn't be paid. LON didn't respond lol

30

Explain Memel

1923
Lituania seized Memel, which was under League control.
Port became an 'international zone' while the surrounding land was given to Lituania

31

Explain Iraq

1924
Turks demanded Mosul (British Mandate in Iraq). League supported Iraq.

32

Explain Bolivia

1928
Bolivia and Paraguay went to war over Chago. League was unable to help

33

what were the results of the economic boom and then the international crash?

BOOM Major powers economically stable; not looking to expand; international trade meant that countries had good relations, LON don't have to deal with large disputes

CRASH Br + Fr focus on reviving their own economies and forget about international politics; aggressive countries wanted to expand economies through conquest, USA became completely self-serving