Flashcards in League of Nations Deck (33):
Poland and Czechoslovakia fought over this area
Area was split and fighting ended, although they weren't happy
What were the main situations that the League had to deal with before the Wall Street crash?
Upper Silesia 1921
Aaland Islands 1921
Explain Vilna briefly
Polish army occupied Vilna (capital of Lithuania)
League asked Poland to withdrawal, they didn't
No further action was taken
Explain upper Silesia briefly
Germany and Poland both wanted control
Region was divided between them
Explain Aaland islands briefly
Sweden and Finland both wanted control
Islands went to Finland
Explain Corfu briefly
Tellini was sorting out Greece/Albania boundaries and was murdered
Mussolini demanded compensation and execution of murderers
Mussolini attacked and occupied Corfu
Greece were made to pay compensation
Explain Bulgaria briefly
Greek soldiers killed by Bulgarian soldiers
Greek troops invaded
Greece made to pay compensation again
Explain Locarno briefly
There were unresolved borders between Belgium/France
In Locarno, Switzerland they agreed on
Britain and Italy protect France
France and Germany to settle disputes through LON
It was agreed that the Rhineland would remain a demilitarized zone
Explain Kellogg- Briand pact briefly
Pact stated that war was not a solution to disputes
Armies were agreed to be used for self defence only
What was the point of inevitable failure for the LON? What happened?
Wall Street crash 1929 (USA recalled loans + refused to negotiate)
1. European industries collapsed
2. Unemployment rockets
3. Very little international trade
4. Limited profits
repeat steps 1-4
When was the league the most successful and why?
The Dawes Plan, The Young Plan, the economic boom
What was the result of the USA giving loans to Europe (Dawes Plan/ Young Plan)
1. industry develops
2. employment goes up
3. lots of international trade
4. huge profits
repeat steps 1-4
Why did Germany become stronger?
The Dawes plan helped lower the effect of war punishment
What agreement did Germany and Britain make about the navy?
The Anglo-German naval agreement
Fixed size of German navy at 35% of Britain's
What sanctions were gave to Italy and why weren't they effective?
Banned loans to Italy and imports from Italy
Banned exports of rubber, tin and other metals
They did not ban oil immediately - big mistake
Suez Canal was not closed either
Who was forced into exile during the Abyssinian invasion?
Haile Selassie, Abyssinian emperor
What pact was between Italy France and Britain?
The Stresa pact, which united them against Germany
Effect of Wall Street crash on Japan?
USA stopped trading
Japanese economy collapsed - government couldn't feed people + needed a change
What secret pact was attempted between British and French politicians?
The hoare-laval pact, planning to give two thirds of Abyssinia to Italy to keep Mussolini happy
Describe German rearmament
Hitler withdrew from disarmament conference
German general, von Fritsch, ordered to make strong forces
Tanks, aircraft, warships were made
What two plans lowered German reparations?
The Dawes plan
The Young plan
How many Germans were unemployed during the height of the economic crisis?
Aims // problems with League of Nations (at the very beginning)
1. Promote peace // conflicting views
2. Encourage disarmament // trust issues
3. Ensure countires' borders are respected // not guaranteed
4. League will take action as one body in the event of war // hard to organise + agree
5. In case of disagreement League members will submit case for League judgement // conflict
6. Establish a Permanent Court of National Justice // Can't enforce
7. In case of an aggressor, all League members will cut country off politically + economically // USA + USSR not in LON, negative effect on trade
8. No secret treaties // no way of knowing lol they're secret
Roles within the League?
-SECRETARIAT: Group of officials worked in Geneva at LON headquarters (Switzerland is neutral)
ASSEMBLY: Representative of each member sent to the Assembly at least once a year (so its fair)
COUNCIL: consisted of Britain, France, Italy and Japan, they made decisions that had to be carried out by all member-states (more powerful than Assembley)
COMMISSIONS: set up to deal with specific problems (e.g. disarmament/madates in Turkey/Health organisation)
Why did the USA not want to join the LON? (5)
1. Wanted to stay isolated from European politics after WW1
2. Not prepared to disarm or enter trade embargoes (stop trade)
3. Public thought Treaty was too harsh
4. Large immigrant population resented uropean affairs
5. The USA had become politically isolationist: The US senate resented the TofV and the LON
What were the weaknesses of the League?
1. Non-European powers resented European influence in the Council
2. Absence of powerful countries (USSR, USA, Germany)
3. Dominated by conflicting Britain and France
4. League sanctions were quite tame
(moral sanctions = meaningless, economic sanctions = USA, USSR, Ger not members, Military sanctions = no League army)
What was the Dawes plan?
What were the consequences of the Dawes plan?
Level of German payments lowered
2 year freeze on reparation payments
USA offered huge loans to Germany
French agreed to get their forces out of the Ruhr
Germans payed $1 billion over 5 years
Germany did very well (new factories etc)
TofV altered to Germany's favour
What was the Young Plan?
1929- considerably lowered Germany's reparations
Explain the Ruhr crisis
11th january 1923
France invaded Ruhr when reparations couldn't be paid. LON didn't respond lol
Lituania seized Memel, which was under League control.
Port became an 'international zone' while the surrounding land was given to Lituania
Turks demanded Mosul (British Mandate in Iraq). League supported Iraq.
Bolivia and Paraguay went to war over Chago. League was unable to help