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Flashcards in Steps to WW2 Deck (24):

List the 8 major steps to war and dates

1936 - German occupation of the Rhineland
1937 - The bombing of Guernica
1938 - German annexation of Austria (the Anschluss)
1938 - The Munich agreement
1839 - German annexation of rump Czechoslovakia + Prague
1939 - The Nazi-Soviet Pact
1939 - German invasion of Poland
1939 - Br + Fr declare war against Germany


Explain German occupation of the Rhineland

Hitler marched troops into the Rhineland and re-militarised it, even though it was forbidden by the TofV and the agreement at Locarno.


Explain the bombing of Guernica

During the Spanish civil war, republicans fought against Franco's nationalists, resulting in violence.


Explain the German annexation with Austria

The Anschluss was when Hitler encouraged the Nazi party in Austria to stir up trouble. Schuschnigg was pressurised into holding a plebiscite. Nazi forced the Austrians to vote in favour of the annexation.


Explain the Munich agreement

29th September 1938 The agreement was signed by Br + Fr and broke Czechoslovakia up and gave the Sudetenland to Germany


Explain the German annexation of rump Czechoslovakia

1939- Germany invaded Czechoslovakia and took the rest of Cz. Germany took control of Prague.


Explain the Nazi-Soviet Pact

1939- Stalin, leader of the USSR, felt vulnerable to the capitalist states and made a pact with Hitler.


Explain German invasion of Poland

1st September 1939 Soviet forces joined shortly after in eastern Poland as part of the Nazi-Soviet Pact


Explain Br + Fr declaring war on Germany

3rd September 1939. They had previously pledged to protect Poland.


What was the right wing government pact called and who was in it?

The Anti-Comintern Pact
Germany, Japan and (later) Italy
It was called the Axis alliance


Who was the guy in Czechoslovakia that Hitler ordered to do stuff

Henlein, leader of the Sudeten German Party


Causes of WW2

-Hitler went against wishes of his own military commanders (aggressive)
-TofV angered Germany (revenge) and the military after demobilization (honour)
-Br + Fr encouraged German expansion by giving appeasement (letting them have a better military)
-World Depression set off volatile international relations
-Br + Fr showed that LON was not a threat (failure at Manchuria + Abyssinia)


What does Hitler say in Mein Kampf and imply about future plans?

-States that Jews are poisonous and impure (+infect pure German blood) and blames them for Germany's defeat and for the TofV
-He wanted more land; didn't agree with German boundries
-Believed that Germans are the dominant power and needed land (Lebensraum)
-aimed to eliminate all communists from Germany


What were the aims of the Nazi Party?

-Reverse injustices of TofV
-Expand German borders
-Create pure Aryan race
-Persecute 'undesirables'


How did Hitler seize power?

-He hijacked a local government meeting and announced take over of the Bavarian govn
-Munich Putsch: Nazi troops began taking over official buildings but the police stopped and arrested them (+ killed 16)

-The Nazi Party gained support (Wall Street Crash- Germans wanted change)
-Hindenburg offered Hitler a place as Vice Chancellor but Hitler demanded Chancellor
-Hitler became Chancellor in 1933 and immediately made himself absolute ruler of Germany using Article 48


How did hitler begin to test the treaty of Versailles?

-He reintroduced conscription to the German army
-he started rearming secretly
-he left the disarmament conference
-the German naval agreement (1935)
-he marched troop into the Rhineland, while the League were occupied with Abyssinia


How did hitler justify his testing of the league and what were the reactions of Britain and France?

-nobody else was disarming so why should Germany stay at a disadvantage
-Germany could not defend themselves
-conscription reduced unemployment
-Germany were under threat after the treaty between the USSR+France

-Britain wanted Germany as an ally against communists + a trading patten + thought TofV was too harsh anyway
-France were extremely worried about border, but overestimated the size of the German army and didn't want to act without Britain's help


How did hitler grow in confidence?
What was the reaction of Britain and France?

The Spanish civil war (1936) allowed him to:
-rearm and justify it with 'we're fighting communism!'
-test out new weapons and fire live rounds outside of Germany

The anti Comintern pact (1936) have him the support of two other countries.

Britain implied they were a passive ally and don't see hitler as a threat.
France were extremely worried and built the Majonot Line (a line of forts along the border)


Who wanted/didn't want German annexation of Austria when hitler first tried to take control in 1934?

-pure blood, united as a nation, military gains, gold and iron ore, Lebensraum

-economic crisis meant they wanted change, strong nazi party

-Austria borders Italy and they were unsure about German expansion, the Stresa Pact meant he was against expansion so Mussolini stopper Hitler in 1934


How did hitler take control of Austria?

-In 1938 he was allies with Mussolini so he would not be stopped
-he encouraged Nazis to cause riots
-he pressurised Schuschnigg to call a plebiscite (after Br+Fr refused to help)
-hitler made sure the Nazis forced the Austrians to vote in favour of the Anschluss


Why did Hitler want the Sudetenland? How did he make this clear and what did Br/Fr think?

-He wanted to unite the Sudetenland Germans
-power stations/ farmland/ coal/ copper mines/ railways

-he used Henlein, leader of the Nazis in the Sudetenland, to stir up trouble
-he claimed the Sudetenland Germans were mistreated
-he said he was prepared to fight if necessary (going against his generals) and refused all peaceful solutions that were suggested

-Br, Fr + USSR had all promised to protect Cz but they Br wanted to avoid war at all costs so there was lots of war tension
-Chamberlain, Deladier (French PM) and Bonnet (Fr army officer) agreed to give in to Hitler's demands
-29th September 1938: the Munich Conference


Consequences of the Munich Agreement?

Cz became militarily indefensible
Poland were at a huge threat if Hitler took the rest of Cz
Br+Fr lost credibility
Germany occupied Prague by March 1939


Britains actions following Hitler's occupation of Prague?

-Chamberlin said Britain would give Poland and Romania military support in case of invasion
-Placed A-A guns in view of the German embassy in London
-Conscription for 20-21 year olds introduced
-Production of spitfires + hurricanes extended


Was Appeasement a mistake?

-Chamberlin foolishly believed Hitler was reasonable even after his aggressive speeches and his book Mein Kampf
-Appeasement only encouraged Hitler
-Germany were only growing stronger every time they gave into demands

-Chamberlin could not count on support from the British Empire (but still had France...)
-War with Japan looked more likely
-Britain could not depend on the USA as the armed spending was very low, the US public were against fighting in Europe and Roosevelt was very anti-war
-Chamberlin wanted Hitler as an ally against communists