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What is conditioned taste aversion?

a particular form of learning consisting of avoiding what has been source of violent source of discomfort


What are the three ways we learn

1. Non associative (learning about a stimulus (habituation: behavioral response decreases; and sensitization: increase)
2. Associative: learning the relationship bw 2 pieces of info: -> classical conditioning (a certain stimulus predicts another stimulus);
-> Operant conditioning (a behavior leads to a certain outcome)
4. Watching others:
-> Observational learning: change a behavior after watching a person engage in that behavior
-> Modeling: Imitating a behavior seen in others
-> Vicarious conditioning (learning to engage in a behavior or not after seeing others being rewarded or punished for performing that action.)


What is learning?

A change in behavior, resulting from experience.


According to John Watson, what was the only valid indicator of psychological activity?

observable behaviors (became the basis of behaviorism)


What is Locke assumption of learning

When we are children we are tabula rasa


What is LTP (long term potentiation)

strengthening of synaptic connections that allows us to learn


What is a conditioned stimulus?

is a previously neutral stimulus that elicits a learned response when paired with an unconditioned stimulus (taste of chicken salad)


What is a conditioned response?

a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus (refusal to eat)


What is an unconditioned response?

an automatic response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (vomiting)


What is a unconditioned stimulus?

a stimulus that elicits a response without learning (food poisoning)


What is operant conditioning?

A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that the action will be performed in the future.


What is Thorndike's puzzle box?

Used to develop the law of effect: any behavior that leads to a "satisfying state of affairs" is likely to occur again. but the one that leads to a "annoying state of affairs is less likely to occur again.


What is the skinner box?

a lever that can be pressed (operant) is connected to a food supply (reinforcer). The animal through operant conditioning learns to press the lever to obtain food.


What is shaping?

an operant conditioning technique that consists of reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior.


What is the difference bw primary and secondary reinforcers?

PRIMARY: those reinforcers that satisfy biological needs
SECONDARY: Do not satisfy biological needs. (established through classical conditioning :association of a neutral stimulus with a primary reinforcers to create a secondary reinforcer)


What is the Premark principle?

Having to accept the less desired things to receive something one really wants.


What are the 4 types of reinforcement and punishment?

added: positive
taken away:negative
behavior increase: reinforcement
Behavior decrease: punishment


What do you use to produce faster learning?

Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing behavior each time it occurs.


4 types of continuous reinforcement

fixed ratio schedule (reinforcer given after a fixed number of intended behavior)
fixed interval schedule:(reinforcer given after a fixed amount of time)
variable ratio schedule (reinforcer given after a variable number of response)
variable interval schedule (reinforcer given after a variable amount of time)


What are the 2 ways induced by positive reinforcement?

Provide the subjective experience of pleasure,
increase the desire for the object or event that produced the pleasure.


What neurotransmitter allows liking and wanting involved when positive reinforcement occur?



What can delay reinforcement? and when conditioning is most effective?

when a particular learning is incompatible with innate, biologically determined adaptive behaviors (raccoon);
when the association bw the response and the reinforcement is consistent with the animal's built-in biological predisposition.


What is Tolman's view on reinforcement?
What was his focus?

It has more impact on performance than on acquisition of knowledge through learning;
Latent learning:Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement.


What is a cognitive map?

A visuospatial mental representation of an environment.


What are the 2 types of learning that occur without reinforcement?

Latent learning and insight learning (form of pb solving


What does mean Seligman's concept of preparedness?

genetic programmation or biological preparedness to fear specific object


Do primary reinforcer and biological reinforcer alike?



Differentiate: US, CS, UR, US, Neutral stimulus

US: water spray
CS: Word "can"
UR: Flinching
CR: Flinching when can is said
Neutral stimulus: A list including the word can