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Flashcards in Perception Deck (29)
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The method of limits (dot), how is defined your threshold?

your threshold for stimulus detection is the average of: a) the point at which you respond 'no' you did not detect the stimulus, and b) the point at which you respond 'yes' you did detect the stimulus.


For what is used the approach in : staircase

to prevent sensory adaption from accusing


How is defined the method of threshold?

By a serie in order ascending then descending, several times.


What is the method of constant stimuli

the set of stimuli is presented in random order and is sometimes above sometimes under the absolute threshold


What is the weakness of the method of limit?

We can anticipate o predict the following stimuli.


In the method of constant stimuli, how is the threshold measured?

the smallest stimulus detected 50% of the time.


What does The method of constant stimuli measure?

the softest sound we can hear and the dimmest light we can see.


What is the method of adjustment

The method of adjustment means that the observer control the level until it is at his perceptual threshold


What is the point of subjective equality?

is the setting of 2 stimuli in which the observer experience them as identical


Describe magnitude estimation

observer assign numerical to estimate the perceived strength of a stimulus.


What kind of method is this and who theorized it?

Psychophysical method. Steven's power law


What is the forced method

We have to choose bw 2 options that are given randomly.


signal detection theory offers how many options?

A miss: something harmful wasn't identified
A hit : Something harmful was identified as such.
A false alarm: a harmless signal is perceived as dangerous,
Correct rejection: Harmless signal was perceived as such


What is the trichromatic theory of color vision?

3 types of cone receptor cell in the retina that are responsible for color perception. Each type responds optimally to different but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths.


What is the difference between additive and subtractive color mixing?

Additive: combination of wavelengths of light. the varying proportions of wavelengths mixture determine the particular colors of light we perceive.
Subtractive: combination of pigment mixture determine the particular color of paint we perceive.


What is the order of steps involved for sound waves to create a perception of the sound in the brain?

1.Sound waves enter the auditory canal
2.The eardrum vibrates
3. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup transfer vibration to the oval window
4. Pressure waves of the cochlea move the basilar membrane
5. Stimulate hair cells send info to the auditory nerve.
6. The auditory nerve carries info the the thalamus,
7. The thalamus directs info to the brain's primary auditory cortex.


Order of steps for involved for flavor on the tongue to create a perception in the brain

1.Chemical substances in food dissolve in saliva;
2. Taste receptors are stimulated
3. Signals are sent to the thalamus by the facial nerve
4. The gustatory cortex processes taste perception.


What are the 5 Gestalt principles of organization (visual)

Proximity, similarity, continuity, closure and illusory contours


What are the difference bw the vestibular sense, the pressure receptors, warm and cold receptors and the kinesthetic sense?

Warm and cold receptors and pressure receptors in the skin, the kinesthetic sense in the muscles and joints, and the vestibular sense in the inner ear carry signals to the brain for perception of temperature, touch, movement, and balance, respectively.


What produce fast and slow fibers?

Fast fibers produces sharp immediate pain whereas Slow fibers produces dull steady pain.


What is The gate control theory of pain and who formulated it?

We experience pain when pain receptors are activated and a neural gate in the spinal cord allows the signals through to the brain.
Patrick Mall and Melzack.


What area of the brain process the different senses?

Olfactory cortex: smell
Temporal love: Hearing
Parietal lobe: touch and pressure
gustatory cortex: taste


What is the two cues one uses to locate a sound?

1. When the sound arrives in each ear
2. the intensity or amplitude of the sound wave in each ear


What is place coding

The perception of higher-pitched sounds is a result of the location on the basilar membrane where hair cells are stimulated by sound waves of varying higher frequencies.


What is temporal coding

The perception of lower-pitched sounds is a result of the rate at which hair cells are stimulated by sound waves of lower frequencies.


How is the somatosensory cortex organized?

By physical proximity,


What are the structures that are encountered by light stimuli entering the eye and traveling to the brain?

rods and cones
ganglion cells
optic nerve
primary visual cortex


What is the other name for difference threshold and what does that mean?

Just noticeable difference: it is the smallest difference you can notice bw 2 things


What is the difference between bottom up and top down processing?

Bottom up: we start with basic properties and move to a more complex understanding.
Top down: complex thinking influence simple perception