Flashcards in Learning Objectives Scapular and Pectoral Regions Deck (28):
What are the regional designations of the deep fascia of the upper limbs?
3) Axillary (floor of axilla/armpit)
4)Brachial (with anterior/posterior compartments)
5)Antebrachial) (interosseous membrane connect ulna and radius)
6) Palmar Fascia
7) Digital fibrous sheaths
What compartmentalizes the the muscles of the arm?
Medial and lateral septae
What controls elevation of scapula?
Trapezius (Accessory nerve), levator scapulae (dorsal scapular)
What controls depression of the scapula?
Pectoralis minor (medial pectoral), trapezius (accessory nerve)
What controls protraction of scapula?
Pectoralis minor (medial pectoral), serratus anterior (long thoracic nerve)
What controls retraction of the scapula?
Trapezius (accessory), Rhomboid major and minor (dorsal scapular)
What controls lateral rotation of the scapula?
Serratus anterior(long thoracic nerve), trapezius (accessory nerve)
What controls medial rotation of the scapula?
Levator scapulae (dorsal scapular), rhomboids (dorsal scapular)
Muscles of the pectoral region
Anterior-Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, subclavius, serratus anterior
Posterior-trapezius, rhomboids, levator scapulae, latissimus dorsi
Muscles of the scapular region
Deltoid, trees major, Rotator cuff (supraspinatus, intraspinatus, trees minor, subscapularis)
Flexion at Gelnohumeral joint
Deltoid (Axillary nerve), pectoralis major (pectoralis median and lateral)
Extension at Glenohumeral joint
Deltoid (axillary), latissimus dorsi (thoracodorsal nerve), teres major (lower sub scapular nerve), long head of triceps brachii (radial)
Abduction at Glenohumeral joint
Supraspinatus (suprascapular nerve) (to 15 degrees), deltoid (to 90 degrees), serratus anterior (long thoracic), trapezius (accessory)
Adduction at Glenohumeral joint
Pectoralis major (medial and lateral pectoral), latissimus dorsi (thoracolumbar), teres major (lower sub scapular nerve)
Internal (medial) rotation Glenohumeral joint
Deltoid (axillary), pectorals major (medial and lateral pectoralis), latissimus dorsi (thoracolumbar), teres major (lower subscapular), long head of triceps brachia (radial)
What muscle connects to the greater tubercle of the humerus?
Teres Minor (axillary) (part of rotator cuff), infraspinatus (suprascapular), supraspinatus (suprascapular)
What muscle connects to the lesser tubercle of the humerus?
Subscapularis (think, LESSER or SUBpar) (upper/lower subscapular), teres major (subscapular)
What part of the humerus does the deltoid connect to?
Deltoid tuberosity (be able to identify)
Describe the scapular arterial anastomosis - what vessels contribute and how do they communicate with one another?
extensive arterial anastomosis around the scapula and on its costal and dorsal surfaces. it provides a connection between the third part of the subclavian and the axillary artery
What aspect of the shoulder joint is not reinforced by the rotator cuff and what is the clinical significance of this?
The anteroinferior aspect of the joint is not reinforced by the rotator cuff, which makes this region of the shoulder somewhat loose, unstable and easily dislocated or strained. the muscles supporting this are constantly contracted and can sometimes lead to tendonitis
What are the boundaries of the quadrangular space?
Teres minor (superior), Long head of triceps brachii (medial), surgical neck of humerus (lateral), teres major (inferior)
What structures pass through the quadrangular space?
Axillary nerve that innervates the deltoid muscle and the teres minor, and the posterior humeral circumflex artery that supplies the deltoid muscle
Describe the anatomical basis of "winged scapula"
damage to the long thoracic nerve prevents protraction by the serrates anterior
Describe the relationship of the axilla nerve to the surgical neck of the humerus. What symptoms would result from a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus?
Damage to the axillary nerve affects function of the teres minor and deltoid muscles, resulting in loss of abduction of arm (from 15-90 degrees), weak flexion, extension, and rotation of shoulder as well as loss of sensation of the skin over a small part of the lateral shoulder
How do clavicular fractures typically occur?
often caused by an indirect force transmitted from an outstretched hand through the bones of the forearm and arm of the shoulder during a fall. usually occurs at the weakest part between the middle and lateral thirds
Why is the medial clavicular fragment often elevated after a clavicle fracture? Why does shoulder drop occur with a clavicular fracture?
it is elevated by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the shoulder drops because the trapezius is too weak to hold up the lateral fragment that is now supporting the upper limb.
What connects to the greater tubercle of the humerus
Infraspinatus, supraspinatus, and teres minor