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Flashcards in Learning Theory Deck (88):
1

Which reinforcement schedule describes one treat for the first correct response within a certain time period?

Fixed Interval (FI)

2

What type of behaviors are emitted and where is it used?

Voluntary choices

Operant conditioning

Remember* "I emit" or I do it

3

Antecedent

Something that comes before- often a stimulus or a cue

4

How must you use punishment?

At an intensity to stop the behavior, and in correct timing to make a direct association.

5

What are the stages of operant learning?

Acquisition
Generalization/Discrimination
5 "D's"
Stimulus control/Fluency

6

What are the pros and cons of Luring?

P- easy way to get behaviors, and builds in a visual cue

C- can create a dog that is dependent on the presence of food to perform behaviors (fade it out).

7

Which quadrant describes removing something desirable to decrease the likelihood of a behavior?

Negative punishment

8

What occurs when there is a controlled presentation (program) of a CS at low enough levels that the learner can tolerate it?

Desensitization

9

What is an elicited behavior? And where is it used?

Involuntary reflex or emotion- uncontrolled

Used in classical conditioning

Remember* elicit in sneeze noise

10

Which quadrant-

Dog jumps on me, I remove all attention until the dog stops jumping on me?

Negative punishment- because I remove something good

11

What are the fall out's of punishment?

Learned irrelevance, owner directed aggression, learned helplessness

12

What do you have to worry about when you are using the premack principle and how do you solve this?

Unintended behavior chains

Make sure you allow the dog to make the choice to do the less likely behavior instead of showing them. This will link them

13

Which quadrants are functional opposites, and are often used together because they complete each other?

PR and NP

NR and PP

14

What are the advantages and disadvantages of promoting?

A- fast way to get a behavior/attention

D- the prompt could become a part of the cue so you fade it out quickly

15

In the context of punishment, what is learned irrelevance?

When the punishment is not effective, or does not outweigh the self reinforcement of the behavior you are wishing to punish

16

Behavior:

Something that the learner does in response to the antecedent

17

What type of stimulus or response has been taught to have meaning?

Conditioned

18

What are Primary reinforcer examples?

Food, toys opportunity, security, etc.

19

What type of response or stimulus has meaning but is not learned? Often defines a natural reflex

Unconditioned

20

Which reinforcement schedule reinforces with one treat for every correct response?

Continuous Ratio (CRF)

22

Adaptation

When the physical sensory systems have been fatigued- detection dogs need breaks for their noses or they can become adapted to the smell

23

What defines a more likely behavior that can reinforce a less likely behavior? Or reinforcing the less likely behavior for the opportunity to do the more likely behavior?

Premack Principle

Loose leash walking (less likely) is rewarded by releasing the dog to sniff (more likely) to get longer duration of the less likely LLW

25

Which learning model catches and reinforces a spontaneous performance of behavior?

Capturing

26

Learned irrelevance:

When a learned stimulus has become neutral through not reinforcing that stimulus

28

What is the first stage of operant learning, and what does it describe?

Acquisition

Learning the new behavior, and getting it paired with the cue.

29

Which quadrant describes adding something undesirable to decrease the likelihood of a behavior?

Positive punishment

30

Which learning model uses physical guidance to put the dog into position or create a behavior?

Modeling or molding

31

Antecedent and behavior are used in what type of learning?

Operant conditioning

33

Which Learning occurs as the learner operates within the environment as they respond to their consequences?

BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning

34

Secondary reinforcer:

A stimulus that has been paired with or predicts a primary reinforcer- markers or a simple behavior

35

Which reinforcement schedule delivers reinforcement depending on how quickly the response follows the last response?

High Response Rate (DRH)

36

Which learning model provides a location for the nose or paw as a way of guiding a behavior?

Targeting

37

What occurs when one pairs a sensitized CS with a USC to change the association?

Scary dog (CS) + Food (UCS) = ?

Counter conditioned Stimulus

38

Stimulus and response are discussed in what type of learning?

Classical conditioning

39

What does this learning equation describe?
DS/CC

Desensitization and Counter Conditioning

41

Response:

The behavior elicited by a stimulus

42

What are the pros and cons of capturing?

P- can be a great way to increase the likelihood of a behavior so that shaping is easier

C- one must be ready to capture the behavior even if it's not in a planned training session

43

What is an unconditioned response? UCR

The reflexive response to a particular stimuli

44

In the schedules of reinforcement, what does interval mean?

Time

45

What are the pros and cons of modeling?

P- can be helpful for a stoic dog who isn't offering behaviors

C- dog isn't learning, can be dependent on physical contact, and can be seen as aversive which poisons the cue

46

How does classical conditioning work?

A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to create a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response

48

What are the pros and cons of targeting?

P- versatile and can be added to create fancier behaviors, doesn't require prompt or luring

C- some dogs don't like using their noses or paws

49

What definition defines good stress?

Eustress

50

What is the second stage of operant learning, and what does it describe?

Generalization/discrimination

Generalization- Training the dog to understand that they will be rewarded for performing the behavior no matter what environment they're in, which handler is asking for it, the tone of voice, etc.

Discrimination- training the dog that the cue for the behavior needs to be present for the reward to follow "sir means sit"

51

Which quadrant describes adding something desirable to increase the likelihood of a behavior?

Positive reinforcement

55

Over learning

Making a lesson solid in the learners mind so that they understand it in any situation- proofing

55

What definition defines bad stress where they cannot learn

Distress

57

What is a phenomena that occurs as a dip in performance happens immediately following reinforcement on a fixed Ratio?

Post Reinforcement Pause

58

Which learning is visceral, emotional, and reflexive.

Classical

59

What is the 4th stage of operant learning, and what does it describe?

Stimulus control/Fluency

When the dog has achieved both generalization and discrimination with the cue/behavior

The trainer has achieved stimulus control, the dog has achieved fluency

60

What does this learning equation describe?
CS/CER + UCS/UR = CCS/ New CER

Counter conditioning a stimulus with a previously bad association to one with a new, good association.

Conditioned stimulus/response + Unconditioned stimulus/response = Counter Conditioned stimulus/ New Conditioned Reponse

61

Which learning has the quadrants in it?

Operant

62

What is the third stage (5) of operant learning, and what do they describe?

What is difficulty and how to we increase it?

Duration, Distraction, Distance, Diversity, and Difficulty.

Making sure the behavior is near perfect, taking all of these factors into consideration.

Pairing multiple D's together. Train one at a time at first.

63

Which learning model describes using food or target to guide the dog, usually by the nose, into preforming a behavior?

Luring

64

Tertiary reinforcer:

A behavior or stimulus that has been paired with or predicts a secondary reinforcement- behavior chains

64

What is a conditioned response?

The response a learner has when there is a successful paring of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.

Or a response to a conditioned stimulus

65

Habituation

Getting used to something through life experiences; forgets the stimulus is there- cry if the baby, loud TVs, etc. often used when socializing young puppies

66

What is a No Reward Marker?

A cue that predicts the withholding of treats or correction- the opposite of a clicker

67

Which reinforcement schedule reinforces any behavior that is not the behavior we are "training out"?

Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)

68

How do you add a new cue to an already existing cue (already knows hand signal, needs to know verbal)?

New cue, old cue, mark, reward.

Then fade out the old cue, until the new cue is more salient than the old cue

69

Stimulus:

Something that elicits a behavior

69

What occurs when a learner has learned that they are incapable of escaping punishment and cease offering behavior?

Learned helplessness

69

Which quadrant describes removing something undesirable to increase the likelihood of a behavior?

Negative reinforcement

71

Which reinforcement schedule reinforces only for behaviors what counter, or are specifically incompatible with the behavior that's being "trained out"?

Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)

72

Poisoned cue

When a negative association has been attached with a cue

72

What process of decreasing the intensity and frequency of a conditioned behavior by removing reinforcement? Aka CS becomes NS due to lack of pairing

Extinction

73

Consequence:

What occurs in response to their behavior- punishment, reinforcement, nothing, etc.

73

Which reinforcement schedule is not set, varies, and is the best schedule to maintain behavior once it's learned?

Variable Ratio (VR) jackpot

73

Which reinforcement schedule describes when the amount of time that lapses before the next treat can be earned is varied?

Variable Interval (VI)

74

What is the difference between sensitization and desensitization?

Sensitization is being aware or hyper aware to a stimulus- jumping up when they hear the test bag open

Desensitization- being unaware or becoming calm of a previously sensitized stimulus through a step by step procedure which makes it irrelevant or neutral- dog is calm during nail trims

76

What process of extinction occurred when there is an increase of a conditioned behavior after you take away the secondary reinforcer in the early stages of this process?

Extinction burst

Put the collar back in the table when the dog freaks out and tries harder

77

What does this learning equation describe?

A > B > C

The order of operations for operant learning

Antecedent > Behavior > Consequences

78

What did thorndikes law of effect model show about learning?

It's incremental, they need to know what works and what doesn't (trial and error), and that they more they practice, the more they learn

CONSEQUENCES DRIVE BEHAVIOR CHOICES

79

Which learning model triggers a behavior either verbally or physically?

Prompting

80

What law states- behaviors are more likely to repeat if they are followed by satisfying consequences, and vice versa?

Thorndike's law of effect

80

What does this learning equation describe? NS + USC =CS

Creating a good or bad conditioned stimulus

81

What stage if extinction defines the sudden resurgence of an unwanted behavior after successful extinction; or backsliding? This is mostly due to an accidental pairing of the extinguishes behavior?

Demand barking extinguished- friend comes over and reinforces that behavior- behavior comes back

Spontaneous recovery

81

Which learning model builds a behavior via successive approximations and criteria shifts; building a behavior using small steps?

Shaping

82

What type of stimulus or response has no learned or reflexive meaning?

Neutral

82

What is an unconditioned stimulus? UCS

A stimulus that has an inherent, but unlearned meaning

83

Which reinforcement schedule reinforces with one treat for a fixed number/sets of responses, and is used once a behavior is learned?

Fixed Ratio (FR)

84

Which reinforcement schedule delivers reinforcement depending on how slowly the response follows the last response?

Low response rate (LRH)

84

What are the Pros and Cons of Shaping?

P- great way to get complex behaviors and behavior chains, the end behavior is strongest because the dog makes the choice

C- time consuming, must be slow enough to keep learner with you

85

What describes decreasing the intensity of the prompt?

Fading

86

What is a conditioned stimulus? CS

When a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to have meaning.

87

How do we define stimulus control?

Behavior is presented promptly when asked, only when asked, no other behavior is presented when asked, and the behavior isn't presented in response to another cue

88

Which reinforcement schedule only reinforces quality responses (speed, accuracy, specific location, position, etc.)?

Reinforcement of Excellent Behavior (DRE)

88

Which quadrant?

Dog barks at skateboard, the skateboard is removed only when the dog is quiet.

Negative reinforcement- because we remove something the dog doesn't like