Flashcards in Learning Theory Deck (88):
What are Primary reinforcer examples?
Food, toys opportunity, security, etc.
A stimulus that has been paired with or predicts a primary reinforcer- markers or a simple behavior
A behavior or stimulus that has been paired with or predicts a secondary reinforcement- behavior chains
Something that elicits a behavior
The behavior elicited by a stimulus
Something that comes before- often a stimulus or a cue
Something that the learner does in response to the antecedent
What occurs in response to their behavior- punishment, reinforcement, nothing, etc.
Stimulus and response are discussed in what type of learning?
Antecedent and behavior are used in what type of learning?
What type of response or stimulus has meaning but is not learned? Often defines a natural reflex
What type of stimulus or response has been taught to have meaning?
What occurs when one pairs a sensitized CS with a USC to change the association?
Scary dog (CS) + Food (UCS) = ?
Counter conditioned Stimulus
What type of stimulus or response has no learned or reflexive meaning?
What is the difference between sensitization and desensitization?
Sensitization is being aware or hyper aware to a stimulus- jumping up when they hear the test bag open
Desensitization- being unaware or becoming calm of a previously sensitized stimulus through a step by step procedure which makes it irrelevant or neutral- dog is calm during nail trims
Getting used to something through life experiences; forgets the stimulus is there- cry if the baby, loud TVs, etc. often used when socializing young puppies
When the physical sensory systems have been fatigued- detection dogs need breaks for their noses or they can become adapted to the smell
When a learned stimulus has become neutral through not reinforcing that stimulus
Making a lesson solid in the learners mind so that they understand it in any situation- proofing
When a negative association has been attached with a cue
What definition defines good stress?
What definition defines bad stress where they cannot learn
What is an elicited behavior? And where is it used?
Involuntary reflex or emotion- uncontrolled
Used in classical conditioning
Remember* elicit in sneeze noise
What type of behaviors are emitted and where is it used?
Remember* "I emit" or I do it
What process of decreasing the intensity and frequency of a conditioned behavior by removing reinforcement? Aka CS becomes NS due to lack of pairing
What process of extinction occurred when there is an increase of a conditioned behavior after you take away the secondary reinforcer in the early stages of this process?
Put the collar back in the table when the dog freaks out and tries harder
What stage if extinction defines the sudden resurgence of an unwanted behavior after successful extinction; or backsliding? This is mostly due to an accidental pairing of the extinguishes behavior?
Demand barking extinguished- friend comes over and reinforces that behavior- behavior comes back
What defines a more likely behavior that can reinforce a less likely behavior? Or reinforcing the less likely behavior for the opportunity to do the more likely behavior?
Loose leash walking (less likely) is rewarded by releasing the dog to sniff (more likely) to get longer duration of the less likely LLW
What do you have to worry about when you are using the premack principle and how do you solve this?
Unintended behavior chains
Make sure you allow the dog to make the choice to do the less likely behavior instead of showing them. This will link them
What law states- behaviors are more likely to repeat if they are followed by satisfying consequences, and vice versa?
Thorndike's law of effect
What did thorndikes law of effect model show about learning?
It's incremental, they need to know what works and what doesn't (trial and error), and that they more they practice, the more they learn
CONSEQUENCES DRIVE BEHAVIOR CHOICES
Which learning is visceral, emotional, and reflexive.
What is an unconditioned stimulus? UCS
A stimulus that has an inherent, but unlearned meaning
What is an unconditioned response? UCR
The reflexive response to a particular stimuli
What is a conditioned stimulus? CS
When a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to have meaning.
What is a conditioned response?
The response a learner has when there is a successful paring of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Or a response to a conditioned stimulus
How does classical conditioning work?
A neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to create a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response
What occurs when there is a controlled presentation (program) of a CS at low enough levels that the learner can tolerate it?
What occurs when a learner has learned that they are incapable of escaping punishment and cease offering behavior?
Which quadrant describes adding something desirable to increase the likelihood of a behavior?
Which quadrant describes removing something desirable to decrease the likelihood of a behavior?
Which quadrant describes adding something undesirable to decrease the likelihood of a behavior?
Which quadrant describes removing something undesirable to increase the likelihood of a behavior?
Which learning model describes using food or target to guide the dog, usually by the nose, into preforming a behavior?
Which learning model triggers a behavior either verbally or physically?
Which learning model builds a behavior via successive approximations and criteria shifts; building a behavior using small steps?
Which learning model provides a location for the nose or paw as a way of guiding a behavior?
Which learning model uses physical guidance to put the dog into position or create a behavior?
Modeling or molding
Which learning model catches and reinforces a spontaneous performance of behavior?
Which reinforcement schedule reinforces with one treat for every correct response?
Continuous Ratio (CRF)
Which reinforcement schedule reinforces with one treat for a fixed number/sets of responses, and is used once a behavior is learned?
Fixed Ratio (FR)
Which reinforcement schedule is not set, varies, and is the best schedule to maintain behavior once it's learned?
Variable Ratio (VR) jackpot
What is a phenomena that occurs as a dip in performance happens immediately following reinforcement on a fixed Ratio?
Post Reinforcement Pause
In the schedules of reinforcement, what does interval mean?
Which reinforcement schedule describes one treat for the first correct response within a certain time period?
Fixed Interval (FI)
Which reinforcement schedule describes when the amount of time that lapses before the next treat can be earned is varied?
Variable Interval (VI)
Which reinforcement schedule delivers reinforcement depending on how quickly the response follows the last response?
High Response Rate (DRH)
Which reinforcement schedule delivers reinforcement depending on how slowly the response follows the last response?
Low response rate (LRH)
Which reinforcement schedule reinforces only for behaviors what counter, or are specifically incompatible with the behavior that's being "trained out"?
Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
Which reinforcement schedule reinforces any behavior that is not the behavior we are "training out"?
Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
Which reinforcement schedule only reinforces quality responses (speed, accuracy, specific location, position, etc.)?
Reinforcement of Excellent Behavior (DRE)
What does this learning equation describe? NS + USC =CS
Creating a good or bad conditioned stimulus
What does this learning equation describe?
CS/CER + UCS/UR = CCS/ New CER
Counter conditioning a stimulus with a previously bad association to one with a new, good association.
Conditioned stimulus/response + Unconditioned stimulus/response = Counter Conditioned stimulus/ New Conditioned Reponse
What does this learning equation describe?
Desensitization and Counter Conditioning
What does this learning equation describe?
A > B > C
The order of operations for operant learning
Antecedent > Behavior > Consequences
Which Learning occurs as the learner operates within the environment as they respond to their consequences?
BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Which learning has the quadrants in it?
Dog barks at skateboard, the skateboard is removed only when the dog is quiet.
Negative reinforcement- because we remove something the dog doesn't like
Dog jumps on me, I remove all attention until the dog stops jumping on me?
Negative punishment- because I remove something good
Which quadrants are functional opposites, and are often used together because they complete each other?
PR and NP
NR and PP
What describes decreasing the intensity of the prompt?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of promoting?
A- fast way to get a behavior/attention
D- the prompt could become a part of the cue so you fade it out quickly
What are the pros and cons of Luring?
P- easy way to get behaviors, and builds in a visual cue
C- can create a dog that is dependent on the presence of food to perform behaviors (fade it out).
What are the pros and cons of targeting?
P- versatile and can be added to create fancier behaviors, doesn't require prompt or luring
C- some dogs don't like using their noses or paws
What are the pros and cons of modeling?
P- can be helpful for a stoic dog who isn't offering behaviors
C- dog isn't learning, can be dependent on physical contact, and can be seen as aversive which poisons the cue
What are the pros and cons of capturing?
P- can be a great way to increase the likelihood of a behavior so that shaping is easier
C- one must be ready to capture the behavior even if it's not in a planned training session
What are the Pros and Cons of Shaping?
P- great way to get complex behaviors and behavior chains, the end behavior is strongest because the dog makes the choice
C- time consuming, must be slow enough to keep learner with you
What are the stages of operant learning?
What is the first stage of operant learning, and what does it describe?
Learning the new behavior, and getting it paired with the cue.
What is the second stage of operant learning, and what does it describe?
Generalization- Training the dog to understand that they will be rewarded for performing the behavior no matter what environment they're in, which handler is asking for it, the tone of voice, etc.
Discrimination- training the dog that the cue for the behavior needs to be present for the reward to follow "sir means sit"
What is the third stage (5) of operant learning, and what do they describe?
What is difficulty and how to we increase it?
Duration, Distraction, Distance, Diversity, and Difficulty.
Making sure the behavior is near perfect, taking all of these factors into consideration.
Pairing multiple D's together. Train one at a time at first.
What is the 4th stage of operant learning, and what does it describe?
When the dog has achieved both generalization and discrimination with the cue/behavior
The trainer has achieved stimulus control, the dog has achieved fluency
How do you add a new cue to an already existing cue (already knows hand signal, needs to know verbal)?
New cue, old cue, mark, reward.
Then fade out the old cue, until the new cue is more salient than the old cue
How do we define stimulus control?
Behavior is presented promptly when asked, only when asked, no other behavior is presented when asked, and the behavior isn't presented in response to another cue
How must you use punishment?
At an intensity to stop the behavior, and in correct timing to make a direct association.
What is a No Reward Marker?
A cue that predicts the withholding of treats or correction- the opposite of a clicker
What are the fall out's of punishment?
Learned irrelevance, owner directed aggression, learned helplessness