Lecture 1 - Interactions with Microbes Flashcards Preview

MIIM20002 - Microbes, Infections, Responses > Lecture 1 - Interactions with Microbes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Interactions with Microbes Deck (17):
1

How have bacteria shaped the world?

Made the world habitable by:
- providing molecular oxygen
- recycling matter
- provide nutrients
- symbiosis with other organisms

2

Most interactions with bacteria are...

Beneficial to the host

3

How is transmission of infectious disease different to say, hypertension, for example?

- Can be passed from person to person
- Passed from one to many people (amplification)

4

What are the general routes of invasion by microbes?

Respiratory tract
Conguntiva
Faecal-oral
Sexual
Injection
Congenital

5

What are the different types of infectious organisms?

Bacteria
Viruses
Prions
Protozoans
Fungi

6

What are the features of a generalised bacterium?

- Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
- No nucleus
- Single, circular chromosome
- different ribosomes
- Plasmids
+/- Fimbriae
+/- Flagella
+/- Capsule

7

Describe the different types of cell wall that bacteria can have

Gram positive:
single cell membrane
thick outer layer of peptidoglycan

Gram negative:
inner and outer membrane
periplasmic space
thin layer of peptidoglycan

8

Which acids are found in the cell wall of Gram positive bacteria?

Teichoic acids

9

Which bacteria are more resistant to drying?

Gram positive
Thicker layer of peptidoglycan

10

What are the special features found on Gram positive and negative bacteria?

Gram positive:
Teichoic acids in the wall

Gram negative:
LPS on outer membrane

11

What is endotoxin

= LPS

12

Describe the genomes of viruses

Can be anything!!

RNA or DNA, not both
ds or ss
Circular or linear

13

What is the generalised structure of viruses?

Genome

Protein coat / Capsid

+/- plasma membrane envelope

14

What are the steps in viral replication?

Attachment
Penetration
Uncoating
Transcription of early mRNA
Translation of early proteins
Replication of viral DNA
Transcription of late mRNA
Translation of late proteins
Self-assembly
Release

15

What are the generalised components of the immune system?

1/ Physical barriers

2/ Cells
- macrophages
- lymphocytes

3/ Humoral factors
- from leukocytes or other cells

16

What are capsules made out of?

Mainly polysaccharide

17

Which components of bacteria are immunogenic?

Cell wall
Capsule
Pili / Fimbriae
Cytoplasm (containing exotoxins)
Flagella