Lecture 11- Tuberculosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11- Tuberculosis Deck (19):
1

Tuberculosis is?

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body.

2

TB can cause puss in lungs, what does this look like on xray?

white fluffiness

3

Where is TB most prevalent

Developing countries
-Africa

4

TB sufferers in NZ are usually people who

were born overseas and migrate to NZ

5

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis strains?

M. tuberculosis (know this*)


M. bovis (cow TB)
M. africanum
M. ulcerans

6

two different classifications of mycobacteria?

1) TB
2) non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM)
-rapid growing
-non rapid growing

7

Transmission of TB

Pulmonary route
-coughing, gets into alveoli, can float in dust (rare) therefore can be direct and indirect transmission.
Has to touch pulmonary alveoli macrophages.

-can also be drunk (cows milk)

8

LAM

causes TB to be eatin by WBC, keeps it alive and stops macrophage from signalling others

9

Commonly the IS doesn't sufficiently clear all the TB infection... what often happens?

Granuloma 'prison' formed.
-Middle= necrotic muck
-outer macrophages that haven't been allowed to die
-outermost CD4 lymphocytes telling macrophages what to do

Granuloma formed often in chronic diseases (if necrosis occurs then usually TB)

10

Latent TB infection

Most of the time infection is contained successfully by the granuloma.

Not always permanent

11

TB reactivation

Granuloma can fail, TB wakes up
when there is interference
-cancer
-age
-HIV
-steroids
-cancer

12

Extra pulmonary TB

TB in other places
-lymph glands

13

Miliary TB

TB is everywhere, blood, urine, lungs.
High risk of death

14

Samoa TB vs NZ TB

Samoan more common

15

Most common age for TB infection

Infection more common in children

16

How to diagnose TB

-suspicion
-collect sputum (look for TB)
-chest x-rays
-grow TB in lab

17

Stain to identify TB

due to mycobacteriums lipid rich wall they retain the stain and you cannot wash it out.

18

Is there any reason to treat latent TB

if they have rhematoid arthritis so the treatmnt they use (interfere with TNF-a) could reactivate TB

19

Mantoux problems

inject with TB
-after 72 hours if lump present IS reaction