Lecture 13- Pathogens 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13- Pathogens 2 Deck (13):
1

Why are doctors being advised to only prescribe AB when needed?

Antibiotic prescribing leads to development of resistance, due to the incredibly fast evolution of pathogens. This means AB become invalid and don't work, and the patient can no longer be cured. MAJOR WORLD WIDE ISSUE

2

Indirect transmission

infectious disease spread from person to person, but they are not at the same place at the same time
-vector bourne (mozzi, healthcare worker)
-blood transfusion
-airbourne

3

Direct transmission

Person to person
-coughing
-sneezing
-faecal - oral

4

Universal precautions

gloves
decontamination of spills
disposal of sharps/needles
waste management
environmental cleaning
HAND HYGIENE

5

Extra precautions that are done

Contact precautions:
Gloves for ALL patient contact
Gowns/eyeware

Droplet precautions: masks for close contact

Airbourne precautions: respirator mask for staff/patients

6

Viral tropism

viral target cell
eg) HIV and CD4 on helper T-cells

7

Steps of viral infection

1) Virus attachment and entry
2) nucleic acid released in host
3) + RNA formed
4) Protein synthesus
5) Genome replication
6) Assembly
7)release

8

Cause of viral infection symptoms?

symptoms due to damaged cells! Immune system reacts against these.
eg) damaged hepatocytes in Hep C

9

Rotavirus causes illness by

VP4 spikes o outer shell attach to colonic epithelium >> diarrhea

10

Serology

Study blood
measure viral antibodies against antigens.
Specific antibodies (for rare illnesses) OR how the numbers of ABs change

11

Seroconversion

change in type of immunoglobulin
-indicates infection

12

Virulence factors

genetic determinants that allow a pathogen to cause disease
-adherence
-invasion
-immune evasion
-toxins

13

levels of virulence

commensual, 'never' cause disease
>> commensual, rarely cause disease >> requires some breech of host defences >> can cause disease in hosts with intact defences